# American Rural Highways Trivia Quiz Questions and Answers

What percentage of the tonnage transported on rural highways in the US was carried by motor vehicles in 1920?

• 10%
• 50%
• 90%
• 99%

Correct Answer Explanation: The rise of the motor vehicle in the early 20th century revolutionized rural transportation, with over 90% of the tonnage transported on rural highways being carried by motor vehicles in 1920. This signifies the dramatic shift from horse-drawn carriages to motorized transport.

What is the average number of rural families per square mile in the United States?

• 1-2
• 6-8
• 15-20
• 25-30

Correct Answer Explanation: The text states that the average number of rural families in the United States is between six and eight per square mile, with some areas reaching 20 families per square mile. This helps understand the scale of rural populations and the need for efficient transportation infrastructure.

What is the tractive resistance of a very good macadam road surface for a steel tired vehicle on a level road?

• 38 lbs. per ton
• 85 lbs. per ton
• 125 lbs. per ton
• 218 lbs. per ton

Correct Answer: 38 lbs. per ton

Correct Answer Explanation: Tractive resistance is the force required to move a vehicle over a surface. A very good macadam road surface offers low resistance, only 38 lbs. per ton, compared to a muddy earth road, which has a much higher resistance of 218 lbs. per ton.

What is the maximum desirable grade on trunkline highways, according to highway engineers in 1920?

• 2%
• 4%
• 6%
• 8%

Correct Answer Explanation: Highway engineers generally agree that a 6% grade is the maximum desirable on trunkline highways, unless substantial grading is required. This grade ensures that vehicles can ascend the hill without undue strain on the engine and without significantly impacting traffic flow.

What is the typical thickness of a well-compacted gravel layer that can support loads up to four tons?

• 4 inches
• 6 inches
• 8 inches
• 10 inches

Correct Answer Explanation: A well-compacted gravel layer of 10 inches can support loads up to four tons, with thinner layers appropriate for lighter traffic. This highlights the importance of road surface thickness in relation to the load it is expected to bear.

What is the standard thickness of a macadam surface for medium traffic loads?

• 4 inches
• 6 inches
• 8 inches
• 10 inches

Correct Answer Explanation: A standard eight-inch thick layer of macadam is typically adequate for medium traffic loads, with adjustments needed for heavier loads or inferior foundations. This illustrates how road surface design needs to consider the specific requirements of the traffic it will handle.

What is the minimum crushing strength required for concrete used for road surfaces?

• 1500 pounds per square inch
• 2500 pounds per square inch
• 3500 pounds per square inch
• 4500 pounds per square inch

Correct Answer: 2500 pounds per square inch

Correct Answer Explanation: Concrete used for road surfaces should have a crushing strength of at least 2500 pounds per square inch to withstand the weight of vehicles and the forces generated by their movement. This ensures the longevity and structural integrity of the road.

What is the typical spacing of expansion joints in concrete roads?

• 10 feet
• 20 feet
• 30 feet
• 40 feet

Correct Answer Explanation: Expansion joints are built into concrete roads to accommodate temperature changes and prevent cracking. They are typically placed every 30 feet to allow for the expansion and contraction of the concrete without compromising the structural integrity of the road.

What is the name of the finer portion of crushed stone used to bond broken stone roads?

• Screenings
• Gravel
• Mastic
• Filler

Correct Answer Explanation: Screenings, the finer portion of crushed stone, are used to bond broken stone roads, providing a stable and durable surface. This highlights the importance of using different size aggregates in road construction to achieve the desired strength and stability.

What is the name of a type of road foundation that uses large stones laid by hand, often employed when the earth foundation is unstable?

• Telford
• Bituminous
• Concrete

Correct Answer Explanation: A Telford foundation uses large stones laid by hand, forming a strong and stable base for the road surface. This foundation is particularly useful when the earth foundation is unstable or when heavier loads are expected.

What is the soluble portion of bituminous materials that gives them their cementing properties?

• Asphaltene
• Bitumen
• Filler
• Mastic

Correct Answer Explanation: Bitumen is the soluble portion of bituminous materials that gives them their cementing properties. It acts as a binder, holding the aggregate materials together and forming a cohesive and durable road surface.

What is the term for the process of a road surface breaking apart due to the loss of binding material?

• Raveling
• Cracking
• Rutting
• Corrugation

Correct Answer Explanation: Raveling is the process of a road surface breaking apart due to the loss of binding material. This can be caused by factors like water penetration, traffic wear, or improper construction techniques. It significantly impacts the road’s durability and requires timely maintenance to prevent further deterioration.

What is the term for the grade at which a vehicle can coast without applying brakes?

• Tractive resistance
• Impact

Correct Answer Explanation: The coasting grade refers to the steepness of a hill that a vehicle can descend without needing to apply brakes. This is influenced by factors like the vehicle’s weight, the road surface, and the vehicle’s speed.

What is the name of the force created by the pounding of wheels on a road surface?

• Impact
• Tractive resistance
• Raveling
• Rutting

Correct Answer Explanation: Impact refers to the force created by the pounding of wheels on a road surface. This force contributes to the wear and tear of the road surface, especially at high speeds. It also influences the design and construction of the road to withstand these repeated impacts.

What is the term for the force needed to move a vehicle over a surface?

• Tractive resistance
• Impact
• Raveling
• Rutting

Correct Answer Explanation: Tractive resistance is the force needed to move a vehicle over a surface. It is influenced by factors like the vehicle’s weight, the road surface material, and the condition of the surface. Understanding tractive resistance is essential for designing roads that can handle different vehicle types and traffic volumes.

What type of traffic is considered inter-city traffic?

• Traffic traveling between cities
• Traffic traveling between farms
• Traffic traveling between towns within the same county
• Traffic traveling between states

Correct Answer: Traffic traveling between cities

Correct Answer Explanation: Inter-city traffic refers to traffic traveling between different cities. This type of traffic requires roads that are capable of handling higher volumes of traffic and are designed to efficiently connect major urban centers.

What type of traffic is considered inter-county traffic?

• Traffic traveling between counties
• Traffic traveling between farms
• Traffic traveling between towns within the same county
• Traffic traveling between states

Correct Answer: Traffic traveling between counties

Correct Answer Explanation: Inter-county traffic refers to traffic traveling between different counties within the same state. This type of traffic often involves longer distances and requires roads that can handle the flow of goods and people between different communities within the same region.

What type of traffic is considered inter-state traffic?

• Traffic traveling between cities
• Traffic traveling between farms
• Traffic traveling between towns within the same county
• Traffic traveling between states

Correct Answer: Traffic traveling between states

Correct Answer Explanation: Inter-state traffic refers to traffic traveling between different states. This type of traffic requires roads that are designed to connect different regions of the country and often forms part of larger transportation networks that facilitate trade and travel across state lines.

What type of traffic is considered farm-to-market traffic?

• Traffic traveling between cities
• Traffic traveling between farms
• Traffic traveling between towns within the same county
• Traffic traveling between states

Correct Answer: Traffic traveling between farms

Correct Answer Explanation: Farm-to-market traffic refers to traffic traveling from farms to markets where agricultural products are sold. This type of traffic plays a vital role in the agricultural economy and requires roads that can handle the transportation of goods from rural areas to urban centers.

What type of traffic is considered farm-to-farm traffic?

• Traffic traveling between cities
• Traffic traveling between farms
• Traffic traveling between towns within the same county
• Traffic traveling between states

Correct Answer: Traffic traveling between farms

Correct Answer Explanation: Farm-to-farm traffic refers to traffic traveling between different farms within the same region. This type of traffic is often used for transporting agricultural inputs, machinery, or livestock between farms. It highlights the importance of roads in supporting the interconnectedness of agricultural activities within rural communities.

What is a road drag used for?

• To smooth and shape the surface of a gravel road
• To compact the soil foundation of a road
• To remove debris from a road surface

Correct Answer: To smooth and shape the surface of a gravel road

Correct Answer Explanation: A road drag is a piece of equipment used to smooth and shape the surface of a gravel road. It drags across the road surface, leveling out bumps and irregularities to create a smoother and more durable riding experience.

What is a planer used for in road maintenance?

• To smooth and shape the surface of a gravel road
• To compact the soil foundation of a road
• To remove debris from a road surface

Correct Answer: To smooth and shape the surface of a gravel road

Correct Answer Explanation: A planer is a specific type of road drag that is used to smooth and shape the surface of a gravel road. It is particularly effective in maintaining the shape and smoothness of the road surface, ensuring a more comfortable and efficient driving experience.

What is the process of applying a bituminous coating to a macadam road to prevent raveling called?

• Surface treatment

Correct Answer Explanation: Surface treatment is the process of applying a bituminous coating to a macadam road to prevent raveling. This involves cleaning the road surface, applying the binder, and then covering it with stone chips. The bituminous coating helps to bind the stone together and create a more durable and weather-resistant surface.

What type of macadam is constructed by applying a bituminous binder to a lower layer of broken stone, then coating it with stone chips and rolling it?

• Surface treatment

Correct Answer Explanation: Penetration macadam is a type of road construction where a bituminous binder is applied to a lower layer of broken stone, then coated with stone chips, and rolled. This process creates a durable road surface that can withstand heavy traffic loads.

What type of macadam is constructed by heating and mixing graded stone, sand, and a bituminous binder before placing and rolling it?

• Surface treatment

Correct Answer Explanation: Hot-mixed macadam is a type of road construction where graded stone, sand, and a bituminous binder are heated and mixed together before being placed and rolled. This process allows for a more uniform mixture and creates a smoother and more durable road surface.

What is the name of a type of asphaltic concrete that contains a high proportion of coarse aggregate and is known for its durability?

• Bitulithic
• Topeka

Correct Answer Explanation: Bitulithic is a type of asphaltic concrete that contains a high proportion of coarse aggregate and is known for its durability. It is commonly used in high-traffic areas and can withstand heavy loads.

What is the name of a type of asphaltic concrete that contains a higher proportion of fine aggregate and is known for its smooth surface?

• Bitulithic
• Topeka

Correct Answer Explanation: Topeka is a type of asphaltic concrete that contains a higher proportion of fine aggregate and is known for its smooth surface. It is often used in residential areas or where a quieter ride is desired.

What is the name of a type of filler that is often used to seal cracks in concrete roads?

• Bituminous filler
• Sand filler
• Gravel filler
• Mastic filler

Correct Answer Explanation: Bituminous filler is a type of filler that is often used to seal cracks in concrete roads. It provides a durable and watertight seal, preventing water penetration and further deterioration of the road surface.

What is the name of a mixture of fine sand and a solid bituminous material that is used for fillers?

• Mastic
• Filler
• Screenings
• Gravel

Correct Answer Explanation: Mastic is a mixture of fine sand and a solid bituminous material that is used for fillers in road construction. It provides a smooth and durable seal, preventing water penetration and enhancing the overall stability of the road surface.

What is the name of a course of sand or sand-cement mortar that is used to level brick surfaces and accommodate variations in brick size and shape?

• Bedding course
• Filler course
• Wearing course
• Base course

Correct Answer Explanation: A bedding course of sand or sand-cement mortar is used to level brick surfaces and accommodate variations in brick size and shape. It provides a stable and even foundation for the bricks, ensuring a smooth and durable road surface.

What is the name of a type of road that has a wearing course of high-quality aggregates and a lower course of less durable aggregates?

Correct Answer Explanation: A two-course concrete road has a wearing course of high-quality aggregates and a lower course of less durable aggregates. This design allows for a durable and smooth surface while reducing the overall cost of construction by using less expensive materials for the lower course.

What is the term for the process of hauling a ton of farm produce ten miles to a railway station?

• Farm-to-market transportation
• Inter-city transportation
• Inter-county transportation
• Inter-state transportation

Correct Answer Explanation: The process of hauling a ton of farm produce ten miles to a railway station is considered farm-to-market transportation. This highlights the importance of efficient transportation in connecting rural agricultural producers to larger markets and distribution networks.

What is the approximate cost per ton-mile for hauling freight on trunk-line railways?

• 0.1 to 0.5 mills per ton-mile
• 1.7 to 4.4 mills per ton-mile
• 5 to 10 mills per ton-mile
• 10 to 20 mills per ton-mile

Correct Answer: 1.7 to 4.4 mills per ton-mile

Correct Answer Explanation: The cost per ton-mile for hauling freight on trunk-line railways ranges from 1.7 to 4.4 mills per ton-mile. This provides insight into the relative cost of transporting goods by rail compared to other modes of transportation like trucks.

What is the average daily cost for a 5-ton truck, including direct and indirect charges?

• \$10 to \$15
• \$15 to \$20
• \$26.82 to \$30.15
• \$35 to \$40

Correct Answer Explanation: The average daily costs for a 5-ton truck, including direct and indirect charges, range from \$26.82 to \$30.15. This includes costs like fuel, maintenance, driver wages, and depreciation. Understanding these costs is crucial for businesses involved in trucking and transportation.

What is the cost of hauling a ton of merchandise from a freight yard to a merchant’s warehouse in a city compared to hauling it over a thousand miles of railway line?

• Significantly higher
• Slightly higher
• Comparable
• Significantly lower

Correct Answer Explanation: The cost of hauling a ton of merchandise from a freight yard to a merchant’s warehouse in a city is often higher than hauling it over a thousand miles of railway line. This highlights the significant cost associated with short-distance trucking compared to long-distance rail transport.

What is the maximum sustained pull that a team of draft animals weighing 1800 lbs. each can exert?

• 180 lbs.
• 360 lbs.
• 540 lbs.
• 720 lbs.

Correct Answer Explanation: A team of draft animals weighing 1800 lbs. each can exert a sustained pull of about 360 lbs. This highlights the limitations of horse-drawn transportation in terms of hauling capacity and the need for alternative modes of transportation as the demand for hauling heavier loads increased.

What is the limiting grade for a horse-drawn vehicle?

• 4%
• 6%
• 8%
• 10%

Correct Answer Explanation: The steepest grade a horse-drawn vehicle can climb without stalling depends on factors like the load, surface, and the animal’s pulling power. A 6% grade is generally considered the limiting grade for horse-drawn vehicles, beyond which they struggle to maintain traction and momentum.

What is the grade at which a vehicle can coast without applying brakes called?

• Tractive resistance
• Impact

Correct Answer Explanation: The grade at which a vehicle can coast without applying brakes is called the coasting grade. This is influenced by factors like the vehicle’s weight, the road surface, and the vehicle’s speed.

What is the impact of a vehicle traveling at high speeds on a road surface?

• Minimal
• Moderate
• Significant
• Negligible

Correct Answer Explanation: Impact on a road surface, especially for motor vehicles traveling at high speeds, is a significant factor contributing to wear and tear. The repeated pounding of wheels on the road surface can cause cracking, rutting, and other forms of damage over time.

What is the term for the force needed to move a vehicle over a surface?

• Impact
• Tractive resistance
• Raveling
• Rutting

Correct Answer Explanation: The force needed to move a vehicle over a surface is called tractive resistance. It is influenced by factors like the vehicle’s weight, the road surface material, and the condition of the surface. Understanding tractive resistance is essential for designing roads that can handle different vehicle types and traffic volumes.

What is the name of a type of road that is constructed with layers of gravel and compacted earth?

Correct Answer Explanation: Gravel roads are constructed with layers of gravel and compacted earth, providing a relatively inexpensive and readily available road surface. They are often used in areas with limited traffic and where more durable road surfaces are not required.

What is the name of a type of road that is constructed with a layer of broken stone, often bound together with screenings?

Correct Answer Explanation: Macadam roads are constructed with a layer of broken stone, often bound together with screenings. This type of road surface is more durable than gravel roads and can handle heavier traffic loads.

What is the name of a type of road that is constructed with a layer of concrete, often reinforced with steel?

Correct Answer Explanation: Concrete roads are constructed with a layer of concrete, often reinforced with steel. This type of road surface is the most durable and can withstand the heaviest traffic loads.

What is the name of a type of road that is constructed with a layer of compacted earth, often stabilized with clay or other additives?

Correct Answer Explanation: Earth roads are constructed with a layer of compacted earth, often stabilized with clay or other additives. This type of road surface is the least durable and is typically used in areas with light traffic and limited resources.

What is the name of the process of mixing sand with clay to create a road surface?

Correct Answer Explanation: Sand-clay road construction involves mixing sand with clay to create a road surface. This type of road surface is more durable than a pure earth road and can handle moderate traffic loads.

What is the name of the process of applying a layer of gravel to a road surface?

Correct Answer Explanation: Gravel road construction involves applying a layer of gravel to a road surface. This type of road surface is less durable than macadam or concrete roads but can be constructed relatively easily and inexpensively.

What is the name of the process of applying a layer of broken stone to a road surface, often bound together with screenings?

Correct Answer Explanation: Macadam road construction involves applying a layer of broken stone to a road surface, often bound together with screenings. This type of road surface is more durable than gravel roads and can handle heavier traffic loads.

What is the name of the process of applying a layer of concrete to a road surface, often reinforced with steel?

Correct Answer Explanation: Concrete road construction involves applying a layer of concrete to a road surface, often reinforced with steel. This type of road surface is the most durable and can withstand the heaviest traffic loads.

What is the term for a gap built into a road surface to accommodate temperature changes and prevent cracking?

• Expansion joint
• Contraction joint
• Construction joint
• Sealing joint

Correct Answer Explanation: An expansion joint is a gap built into a road surface to accommodate temperature changes and prevent cracking. Concrete expands and contracts with changes in temperature, and expansion joints allow for this movement without putting stress on the concrete, reducing the likelihood of cracking.

What is the term for a type of road foundation that is used when the earth foundation is unstable?

• Telford foundation
• Gravel foundation
• Concrete foundation

Correct Answer Explanation: A Telford foundation is a type of road foundation that is used when the earth foundation is unstable. It consists of large stones laid by hand, creating a strong and stable base for the road surface.

What is the term for the finer portion of crushed stone that is used to bond broken stone roads?

• Screenings
• Gravel
• Filler
• Mastic

Correct Answer Explanation: Screenings are the finer portion of crushed stone that is used to bond broken stone roads. They fill the gaps between the larger stones, providing a more stable and durable surface.

What is the term for a type of road that is constructed with a layer of brick, often laid on a sand or sand-cement mortar bedding course?

Correct Answer Explanation: A brick road is a type of road that is constructed with a layer of brick, often laid on a sand or sand-cement mortar bedding course. Brick roads were common in the past, providing a durable and aesthetically pleasing road surface.

What is the term for a type of road that is constructed with a layer of cobblestones, often laid on a sand or gravel bedding course?

Correct Answer Explanation: A cobblestone road is a type of road that is constructed with a layer of cobblestones, often laid on a sand or gravel bedding course. Cobblestone roads were common in the past, providing a durable and rugged road surface that could withstand heavy traffic loads.

What is the term for a type of road that is constructed with a layer of stone, often laid on a sand or gravel bedding course?

Correct Answer Explanation: A stone road is a type of road that is constructed with a layer of stone, often laid on a sand or gravel bedding course. Stone roads were common in the past, providing a durable and rugged road surface that could withstand heavy traffic loads.

What is the term for a type of road that is constructed with a layer of gravel, often laid on a compacted earth bedding course?

Correct Answer Explanation: A gravel road is a type of road that is constructed with a layer of gravel, often laid on a compacted earth bedding course. Gravel roads are common in rural areas, providing a relatively inexpensive and readily available road surface.

What is the term for a type of road that is constructed with a layer of compacted earth, often stabilized with clay or other additives?

Correct Answer Explanation: An earth road is a type of road that is constructed with a layer of compacted earth, often stabilized with clay or other additives. Earth roads are common in rural areas, providing a relatively inexpensive and readily available road surface.

What is the term for the process of applying a layer of bituminous material to a road surface, often used to seal cracks or create a waterproof surface?

• Bituminous surface treatment

Correct Answer Explanation: Bituminous surface treatment is the process of applying a layer of bituminous material to a road surface, often used to seal cracks or create a waterproof surface. This process helps to improve the durability and longevity of the road surface.

What is the term for a type of macadam road that is constructed by applying a layer of bituminous binder to a lower layer of broken stone, then covering it with stone chips and rolling it?

• Surface treatment

Correct Answer Explanation: Penetration macadam is a type of macadam road that is constructed by applying a layer of bituminous binder to a lower layer of broken stone, then covering it with stone chips and rolling it. This process creates a durable and waterproof road surface.

What is the term for a type of macadam road that is constructed by heating and mixing graded stone, sand, and a bituminous binder before placing and rolling it?

• Surface treatment

Correct Answer Explanation: Hot-mixed macadam is a type of macadam road that is constructed by heating and mixing graded stone, sand, and a bituminous binder before placing and rolling it. This process creates a more uniform mixture and creates a smoother and more durable road surface.

What is the term for the process of removing debris from a road surface, such as leaves, branches, or rocks?

Correct Answer Explanation: Road cleaning is the process of removing debris from a road surface, such as leaves, branches, or rocks. This process helps to maintain the safety and efficiency of the road.

What is the term for the process of repairing damage to a road surface, such as cracks, potholes, or ruts?

Correct Answer Explanation: Road repair is the process of repairing damage to a road surface, such as cracks, potholes, or ruts. This process helps to maintain the safety and efficiency of the road.

What is the term for the process of maintaining the overall condition of a road, including cleaning, repairing, and resurfacing?

Correct Answer Explanation: Road maintenance is the process of maintaining the overall condition of a road, including cleaning, repairing, and resurfacing. This process helps to ensure that the road remains safe and efficient for use.

What is the term for the process of constructing a new road, including planning, designing, and building the road surface?