Apology (1999) Informative Summary


The “Apology” is a captivating and thought-provoking account of Socrates’ defense against charges of impiety and corrupting the youth of Athens. It vividly portrays the intellectual and philosophical brilliance of Socrates as he confronts his accusers with logic and wit. Socrates refutes their charges, eloquently arguing that his true mission is to serve as a “gadfly” to the Athenian state, urging citizens to prioritize virtue and wisdom above all else. He contends that his unwavering pursuit of truth and his dedication to exposing false knowledge are ultimately beneficial, even if they make him unpopular.

Despite his compelling arguments, Socrates is condemned to death. Even in the face of this grim sentence, he demonstrates remarkable composure and unwavering commitment to his philosophical principles. He offers a powerful reflection on the nature of death, considering it either a state of peaceful nothingness or a transition to another realm where he can continue his pursuit of knowledge.

Key Findings:

  • Socrates’ pursuit of truth and wisdom was his primary motivation, and he prioritized it above personal gain or social acceptance.
  • Socrates believed that examining one’s life, including confronting one’s own ignorance, is essential for personal growth.
  • Socrates viewed himself as a “gadfly” to the Athenian state, constantly provoking its citizens to think critically and question conventional wisdom.
  • Socrates was willing to face death rather than compromise his principles or betray his commitment to truth.


  • Socrates was 70 years old when he was put on trial.
  • The trial occurred in Athens, Greece.
  • Socrates was charged with impiety and corrupting the youth.
  • Socrates’ accusers included Meletus, Anytus, and Lycon.
  • Meletus accused Socrates of not believing in the gods of the state.
  • Anytus accused Socrates of corrupting the youth.
  • Socrates’ defense was based on his commitment to truth and wisdom.
  • Socrates claimed that he was guided by a divine voice or sign.
  • Socrates’ defense centered on his pursuit of knowledge and his willingness to question established authorities.
  • Socrates believed that true wisdom comes from recognizing one’s own ignorance.
  • Socrates was condemned to death by a close vote.
  • Socrates did not offer a traditional plea for his life.
  • Socrates was accused of being a Sophist, but he rejected this label.
  • Socrates believed that death could be a good thing, potentially leading to a new realm of knowledge.
  • Socrates’ death was considered a tragedy by many, including Plato.
  • The “Apology” is believed to be Plato’s interpretation of Socrates’ defense.
  • Socrates’ last words included a prophecy about the consequences of his death.


  • Socrates was accused by a group of men, suggesting a coordinated effort against him.
  • Socrates was condemned by a very close vote, implying that many Athenians were unsure of his guilt.
  • Socrates was offered a fine of 30 minae as a potential alternative to death.
  • Socrates’ accusers, including Meletus, Anytus, and Lycon, had specific motives for pursuing charges against him.
  • Socrates was found guilty by a majority vote.


  • Impiety: A lack of reverence or respect for God or the gods; irreligion.
  • Oracle: A person or place considered to be a source of divine inspiration, advice, or prophetic pronouncements.
  • Sophist: In ancient Greece, a paid teacher of rhetoric and philosophy, often criticized for emphasizing persuasion and clever argumentation over truth and virtue.
  • Prytaneum: A public building in ancient Greek cities, often used for official ceremonies and the reception of honored guests.
  • Democracy: A form of government in which supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free elections.
  • Oligarchy: A form of government in which power is vested in a small group of people.
  • Gadfly: A person who constantly annoys or provokes others.
  • Virtue: Moral excellence; righteousness.
  • Philosophy: The love of wisdom.
  • Knowledge: Understanding or comprehension; familiarity with facts or information.


  • The Oracle of Delphi: The oracle told Chaerephon that Socrates was the wisest of men.
  • The Trial of the Generals: Socrates defended the generals at a trial, even when the Athenian public wanted to condemn them.
  • The Thirty Tyrants: The Thirty Tyrants were a ruling body in Athens that sought to suppress political opposition.
  • The “Clouds” of Aristophanes: A play by Aristophanes that satirized Socrates and other philosophers.
  • Anaxagoras: An ancient Greek philosopher who was accused of atheism.
  • Evenus the Parian: A philosopher who charged five minae for his teaching.
  • Achilles: A Greek hero who valued honor above life.
  • The Trojan War: A legendary war between the Greeks and Trojans.
  • The World Below: A reference to the afterlife.
  • Minos, Rhadamanthus, Aeacus, Triptolemus: Mythical figures who judged the souls of the dead in the underworld.

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