At The Deathbed Of Darwinism Trivia Questions and Answers

What did author Eberhard Dennert believe was happening to Darwinism in the scientific community in 1904?

  • It was being disproven through new discoveries
  • It was failing as a scientific explanation
  • It was becoming a new religion
  • It was gaining more support than ever

Correct Answer: It was failing as a scientific explanation

Correct Answer Explanation: Dennert’s book argues that Darwinism was losing its influence in the scientific community, with many prominent scientists rejecting its central tenets. He believed that Darwin’s theory was not a complete explanation for the origin of species and that alternative theories were gaining traction.

What was the alternative to Darwinism that was gaining traction?

  • Internal forces and predetermined lines of development
  • Lamarckism
  • Intelligent Design
  • Creationism

Correct Answer: Internal forces and predetermined lines of development

Correct Answer Explanation: The book highlights the growing recognition that evolution is not solely driven by random mutations and a struggle for survival, but is also shaped by internal forces and predetermined lines of development. Concepts like the transmission of acquired characters, organic growth, heterogenesis, and multiple origins were discussed as potential explanations for evolutionary changes.

Which of the following was NOT cited as a criticism of Darwin’s theory?

  • Lack of empirical support for his theory of mimicry
  • Lack of empirical support for his theory of sexual selection
  • Lack of empirical support for his theory of natural selection
  • Lack of empirical support for his theory of intelligent design

Correct Answer: Lack of empirical support for his theory of intelligent design

Correct Answer Explanation: “At the Deathbed of Darwinism” critiques Darwinian concepts like mimicry and sexual selection, highlighting their lack of empirical support. Intelligent design is a modern alternative to Darwinism that was not being discussed in 1904.

What was one of the main criticisms leveled against Darwin’s theory of natural selection?

  • It did not adequately explain the existence of complex organs
  • It did not adequately explain the existence of vestigial organs
  • It did not adequately explain the existence of fossils
  • It did not adequately explain the existence of humans

Correct Answer: It did not adequately explain the existence of complex organs

Correct Answer Explanation: The book challenged Darwin’s theory of natural selection by suggesting that natural selection alone could not explain the existence of complex organs, such as the eye. Proponents of alternative theories, such as orthogenesis, argued that the complexity of life suggested a more predetermined direction in evolution.

What did Dennert believe was important for understanding evolution?

  • Studying fossils and historical records
  • Studying the genetics of living organisms
  • Studying the behavior of living organisms
  • Studying the origins of the universe

Correct Answer: Studying fossils and historical records

Correct Answer Explanation: Dennert believed that understanding evolution required looking at the fossil record and the historical changes that had taken place over time. He argued that palaeontological evidence did not support Darwin’s gradual evolution model, and emphasized the importance of studying fossils and historical records to understand evolution.

What did the author believe was happening to the prestige of Darwinism?

  • It was becoming increasingly respected among scientists
  • It was becoming less respected among scientists
  • It was becoming more respected among the general public
  • It was becoming less respected among the general public

Correct Answer: It was becoming less respected among scientists

Correct Answer Explanation: The book argues that Darwinism has lost its prestige among men of science. It has seen its day and will soon be reckoned a thing of the past.

Which of the following was NOT discussed as an alternative theory of evolution?

  • Heterogenesis
  • Orthogenesis
  • Lamarckism
  • Intelligent Design

Correct Answer: Intelligent Design

Correct Answer Explanation: Dennert discussed heterogenesis and orthogenesis, both theories that reject the Darwinian idea of random mutations. Lamarckism, a theory of evolution based on the inheritance of acquired characteristics, was also discussed. Intelligent design is a modern alternative to Darwinism that was not being discussed in 1904.

Which of the following was a major point of contention for Darwin’s theory, mentioned in the book?

  • The absence of intermediate forms between species in the fossil record
  • The existence of complex organs that seemed unlikely to have evolved gradually
  • The existence of organisms that mimicked their environment
  • The existence of organisms that had developed useful adaptations

Correct Answer: The absence of intermediate forms between species in the fossil record

Correct Answer Explanation: The book argues that palaeontological research has failed to find the countless transition forms between species that Darwinism predicts, supporting the theory of saltatory evolution. This lack of intermediate forms was a major challenge to Darwin’s theory of gradual evolution.

How did Dennert challenge Darwin’s theory of mimicry?

  • He argued that mimicry was a result of adaptation for protection
  • He argued that mimicry was a result of inherent developmental patterns
  • He argued that mimicry was a result of random mutations
  • He argued that mimicry was a result of natural selection

Correct Answer: He argued that mimicry was a result of inherent developmental patterns

Correct Answer Explanation: The book argues that Darwin’s theory of mimicry is demonstrably false, as the resemblance of butterflies to leaves is not a result of adaptation for protection but rather a consequence of inherent developmental patterns.

What was one of the major challenges to Darwin’s theory of natural selection?

  • The lack of evidence for natural selection in the fossil record
  • The lack of evidence for natural selection in the laboratory
  • The lack of evidence for natural selection in nature
  • The lack of evidence for natural selection in the genome

Correct Answer: The lack of evidence for natural selection in the fossil record

Correct Answer Explanation: One of the major challenges to Darwin’s theory of natural selection was the lack of evidence for it in the fossil record. The book argues that palaeontological research has failed to find the countless transition forms between species that Darwinism predicts, supporting the theory of saltatory evolution.

What did the book argue was the role of environment in evolution?

  • It was the sole determining factor in evolution
  • It played a significant role but was not the only factor
  • It played a minor role
  • It played no role

Correct Answer: It played a significant role but was not the only factor

Correct Answer Explanation: The book acknowledges that the environment plays a role in shaping evolution, but it is not the sole determining factor. Internal forces and predetermined developmental patterns are also crucial, as argued by the proponents of alternative theories such as orthogenesis.

What did the book suggest about the direction of evolution?

  • It was a chaotic process of random change
  • It was a directed process with a predetermined outcome
  • It was a cyclical process
  • It was a random process

Correct Answer: It was a directed process with a predetermined outcome

Correct Answer Explanation: The book points to the limited number of directions in which species can evolve, suggesting that evolution is not a chaotic process of random change. It argues that there is a gradual ascent of perfection in the organic world, a phenomenon that cannot be explained by Darwin’s theory of random mutations and struggle for survival. This suggests that evolution may have a more directed and predetermined path.

What is an example of a “autochthon-morphological” character?

  • The camouflage of a chameleon
  • The wings of a bird
  • The shape of a butterfly
  • The stripes of a zebra

Correct Answer: The shape of a butterfly

Correct Answer Explanation: The book differentiates between “autochthon-morphological” characters, which are innate and not related to utility, and “adaptive-morphological” characters, which are related to utility and adapt to the environment. The shape of a butterfly is considered an example of an innate, autochthon-morphological character, not a product of adaptation.

Which of the following was used as an example of the failure of gradual evolution in the book?

  • The Archaeopteryx
  • The Fresh-Water Snail of Steinheim
  • The Parade-Horse
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: The book cites several examples of what it considers failures of Darwin’s gradual evolution model: the Archaeopteryx, the Fresh-Water Snail of Steinheim, and the Parade-Horse. These examples were used to challenge the idea that evolution occurred slowly and gradually, and instead suggested that evolution may involve sudden jumps or leaps.

What did the author argue was necessary to understand evolution?

  • Extensive observation and experimentation
  • Logical deduction
  • Mathematical modeling
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: Extensive observation and experimentation

Correct Answer Explanation: The book emphasizes the need for extensive observation and experimentation to understand the complexities of evolution. It argues that a purely logical approach to understanding evolution is insufficient and cannot account for the complexities of biological phenomena.

What did Dennert believe was the value of the theory of Descent?

  • It was a complete explanation of evolution
  • It was a valuable heuristic maxim
  • It was a proven scientific theory
  • It was a religious belief

Correct Answer: It was a valuable heuristic maxim

Correct Answer Explanation: Although the book argues that the theory of Descent lacks conclusive proof, it still serves as a valuable heuristic maxim, guiding scientific inquiry and prompting further research.

Which of the following is NOT a statistic mentioned in the book?

  • The weight of bacteria
  • The population of elephants
  • The number of types of animal structures
  • The number of species on Earth

Correct Answer: The number of species on Earth

Correct Answer Explanation: The book mentions the weight of bacteria, the population of elephants, and the number of types of animal structures. However, it does not discuss the number of species on Earth.

What did Cohn estimate was the weight of the offspring of a single bacterium after three days under favorable conditions?

  • 4,772 billions of individuals
  • Seven thousand five hundred tons
  • Both of the above
  • Neither of the above

Correct Answer: Both of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Cohn estimated that the offspring of a single bacterium, at its ordinary rate of increase under favorable conditions, would in three days amount to 4,772 billions of individuals with an aggregate weight of seven thousand five hundred tons.

What did Darwin calculate was the theoretical population of elephants today, perpetuating the lives of each pair that mated in the twelfth century?

  • 19,000,000 elephants
  • 1,900,000 elephants
  • 190,000 elephants
  • 19,000 elephants

Correct Answer: 19,000,000 elephants

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin calculated that 19,000,000 elephants should theoretically exist today, perpetuating the lives of each pair that mated in the twelfth century.

What was the name of the Liane javas studied by Haberlandt?

  • Conocephalus ovatus
  • Liana javas
  • Liana ovata
  • Conocephalus javas

Correct Answer: Conocephalus ovatus

Correct Answer Explanation: The book mentions Haberlandt’s experiments on the Liane javas (Conocephalus ovatus), which demonstrated that new organs can arise suddenly and without gradual transitions, challenging Darwin’s theory of natural selection.

What did Haberlandt’s experiments on the Liane javas demonstrate?

  • New organs can arise suddenly and without gradual transitions
  • New organs can arise gradually over time
  • New organs can arise through random mutations
  • New organs can arise through natural selection

Correct Answer: New organs can arise suddenly and without gradual transitions

Correct Answer Explanation: Haberlandt’s experiments on the Liane javas (Conocephalus ovatus) demonstrated that new organs can arise suddenly and without gradual transitions, challenging Darwin’s theory of natural selection.

What did Eimer’s experiments on butterflies demonstrate?

  • Artificial heat can induce changes in wing shape and color
  • Artificial heat can induce changes in wing shape but not color
  • Artificial heat can induce changes in wing color but not shape
  • Artificial heat has no effect on wing shape or color

Correct Answer: Artificial heat can induce changes in wing shape and color

Correct Answer Explanation: Eimer’s experiments with butterflies show that artificial heat can induce changes in wing shape and color, demonstrating that external factors can influence development and undermine the Darwinian idea of random mutations.

What did Eimer’s studies on butterflies reveal about color patterns and designs?

  • Similar color patterns and designs can arise in non-related species
  • Similar color patterns and designs can arise in related species
  • Similar color patterns and designs are always a result of mimicry
  • Similar color patterns and designs are always a result of natural selection

Correct Answer: Similar color patterns and designs can arise in non-related species

Correct Answer Explanation: Eimer’s studies on butterflies reveal that similar color patterns and designs can arise in non-related species, contradicting Darwin’s theory of mimicry as an adaptation for protection.

What did Hertwig argue about the egg-cells of different animal species?

  • They are fundamentally different and do not represent a simple recapitulation of earlier forms
  • They are fundamentally similar and represent a simple recapitulation of earlier forms
  • They are not relevant to the study of evolution
  • They are not important for understanding development

Correct Answer: They are fundamentally different and do not represent a simple recapitulation of earlier forms

Correct Answer Explanation: Hertwig argues that the egg-cells of different animal species are fundamentally different and do not represent a simple recapitulation of earlier forms, challenging Haeckel’s biogenetic principle.

What did Hertwig point out about the egg-cell of a mammal?

  • It is a simple and indifferent form
  • It is a complex structure
  • It is irrelevant to the study of evolution
  • It is not important for understanding development

Correct Answer: It is a complex structure

Correct Answer Explanation: Hertwig points out that the egg-cell of a mammal is a complex structure, not a simple and indifferent form, contradicting the idea of a simple recapitulation of earlier forms during development.

What did Steinmann point out about the extinction of giant saurians?

  • It was a result of competition from small marsupials
  • It was not a result of competition from small marsupials
  • It was a result of climate change
  • It was a result of a meteorite impact

Correct Answer: It was not a result of competition from small marsupials

Correct Answer Explanation: Steinmann points out the absurdity of explaining the extinction of giant saurians as a result of competition from small marsupials, highlighting the weaknesses of Darwin’s theory of survival of the fittest.

What was the name of the fresh-water snail studied by Dennert?

  • The Fresh-Water Snail of Steinheim
  • The Fresh-Water Snail of Darwin
  • The Fresh-Water Snail of Lamarck
  • The Fresh-Water Snail of Haeckel

Correct Answer: The Fresh-Water Snail of Steinheim

Correct Answer Explanation: The idea that the fresh-water snail of Steinheim provides evidence for gradual evolution is demonstrably false.

What did Dennert believe was the ultimate fate of Darwinism?

  • It would be proven correct in the future
  • It would be replaced by a more complete theory of evolution
  • It would become the dominant theory of evolution
  • It would be disproven by future discoveries

Correct Answer: It would be replaced by a more complete theory of evolution

Correct Answer Explanation: Dennert believed that Darwinism was failing as a scientific explanation and would eventually be replaced by a more complete theory of evolution. This belief was based on his view that Darwin’s theory did not adequately account for the complexity of life and lacked sufficient empirical support.

What did Dennert believe was the importance of the alternative theories of evolution that he discussed?

  • They provided a more complete and accurate picture of evolution
  • They were simply different ways of looking at the same thing
  • They were all wrong and should be rejected
  • They were not important and did not need to be considered

Correct Answer: They provided a more complete and accurate picture of evolution

Correct Answer Explanation: Dennert believed that the alternative theories of evolution that he discussed provided a more complete and accurate picture of evolution than Darwin’s theory. He argued that these theories, which emphasized internal forces and predetermined lines of development, were better able to explain the complexity of life and the patterns observed in the fossil record.

What did Dennert believe was the role of science in understanding evolution?

  • To prove or disprove the theory of Descent
  • To provide a complete and accurate picture of evolution
  • To answer all questions about the origin of life
  • To provide a framework for understanding the world around us

Correct Answer: To provide a framework for understanding the world around us

Correct Answer Explanation: Dennert believed that the role of science in understanding evolution was to provide a framework for understanding the world around us. He argued that science could not provide definitive answers to all questions about the origin of life, but it could provide a framework for understanding the processes that shaped life on Earth.

What was Dennert’s main goal in writing “At the Deathbed of Darwinism”?

  • To disprove Darwinism completely
  • To promote a new theory of evolution
  • To stimulate further discussion and research on evolution
  • To convince everyone that Darwinism was wrong

Correct Answer: To stimulate further discussion and research on evolution

Correct Answer Explanation: Dennert’s main goal in writing “At the Deathbed of Darwinism” was to stimulate further discussion and research on evolution. He believed that Darwinism was failing as a scientific explanation and that new theories were needed to account for the complexities of life. He aimed to challenge the prevailing orthodoxy and encourage further scientific inquiry into the processes of evolution.

What does Dennert’s book ultimately argue?

  • Darwinism is a complete and accurate explanation of evolution
  • Darwinism is a valuable heuristic maxim but needs to be revised
  • Darwinism is fundamentally flawed and should be discarded
  • Darwinism is a religious belief and should not be taken seriously

Correct Answer: Darwinism is fundamentally flawed and should be discarded

Correct Answer Explanation: “At the Deathbed of Darwinism” presents a strong case against Darwinism, arguing that it is fundamentally flawed and should be discarded. While the book acknowledges the influence of Darwin’s work, it critiques its central tenets and presents alternative theories that it believes are more accurate and complete.

What did the author believe was the best way to understand evolution?

  • Through a purely logical approach
  • Through observation and experimentation
  • Through mathematical modeling
  • Through faith and belief

Correct Answer: Through observation and experimentation

Correct Answer Explanation: The author believed that the best way to understand evolution was through observation and experimentation. He argued that a purely logical approach was insufficient and that scientific inquiry required direct empirical evidence. This emphasis on observation and experimentation highlights the author’s commitment to a rigorous, scientific approach to understanding evolution.

What did the book suggest about the future of evolutionary theory?

  • Darwinism would continue to be the dominant theory
  • A new, more complete theory would emerge
  • There would be no further progress in evolutionary theory
  • There would be a return to creationism

Correct Answer: A new, more complete theory would emerge

Correct Answer Explanation: The book suggests that a new, more complete theory of evolution would emerge to replace Darwinism. It argues that Darwin’s theory did not adequately account for the complexities of life and lacked sufficient empirical support. The book’s focus on alternative theories, such as orthogenesis and heterogenesis, suggests that the author believed that a new, more comprehensive understanding of evolution was within reach.

What was the book’s main message?

  • Darwinism is the only valid theory of evolution
  • Darwinism is a valuable but flawed theory
  • Darwinism is a religious belief
  • Darwinism is a scientific fact

Correct Answer: Darwinism is a valuable but flawed theory

Correct Answer Explanation: The book’s main message is that Darwinism is a valuable theory that has contributed significantly to our understanding of evolution. However, it also argues that Darwinism is flawed and incomplete, and that alternative theories are needed to provide a more comprehensive and accurate picture of the processes that have shaped life on Earth.

What was the author’s perspective on the theory of Descent?

  • It was a complete explanation of evolution
  • It was a valuable heuristic maxim
  • It was a proven scientific theory
  • It was a religious belief

Correct Answer: It was a valuable heuristic maxim

Correct Answer Explanation: The book argues that while the theory of Descent may lack conclusive proof, it still serves as a valuable heuristic maxim, guiding scientific inquiry and prompting further research. This suggests that the author viewed the theory of Descent as a useful tool for understanding evolution, but not as a definitive or complete explanation.

How did the book contribute to the development of evolutionary theory?

  • By providing a definitive proof of Darwinism
  • By presenting alternative theories that challenged Darwinism
  • By solidifying the dominance of Darwinism
  • By discouraging further research on evolution

Correct Answer: By presenting alternative theories that challenged Darwinism

Correct Answer Explanation: The book contributed to the development of evolutionary theory by presenting alternative theories that challenged Darwinism. By highlighting the limitations of Darwin’s theory and presenting alternative explanations, the book stimulated further discussion and research, ultimately leading to a more nuanced and complex understanding of the processes of evolution.

What was the author’s main argument against Darwinism?

  • Darwinism was based on insufficient evidence
  • Darwinism was not a scientific theory
  • Darwinism was a religious belief
  • Darwinism was a conspiracy theory

Correct Answer: Darwinism was based on insufficient evidence

Correct Answer Explanation: The author’s main argument against Darwinism was that it was based on insufficient evidence. He argued that Darwin’s theory did not adequately account for the complexity of life and lacked sufficient empirical support. The book’s focus on the lack of intermediate forms in the fossil record, the challenges to Darwin’s theory of mimicry, and the difficulties in explaining the development of complex organs all contribute to this central argument.

What did the author believe was the role of the scientific community in evaluating Darwinism?

  • To blindly accept Darwinism as the only valid theory of evolution
  • To reject Darwinism outright and embrace alternative theories
  • To engage in critical thinking and debate to evaluate the evidence
  • To ignore Darwinism and focus on other areas of science

Correct Answer: To engage in critical thinking and debate to evaluate the evidence

Correct Answer Explanation: The author believed that the role of the scientific community in evaluating Darwinism was to engage in critical thinking and debate to evaluate the evidence. He argued that scientific progress relied on the open exchange of ideas and the rigorous scrutiny of evidence. The book itself is a testament to this belief, as it presents a critical examination of Darwinism and encourages further discussion and research.

What did the author believe was the most important factor in understanding evolution?

  • The power of logic
  • The weight of evidence
  • The authority of experts
  • The popularity of a theory

Correct Answer: The weight of evidence

Correct Answer Explanation: The author believed that the most important factor in understanding evolution was the weight of evidence. He argued that scientific progress was driven by empirical observation and that theories should be evaluated based on their ability to explain the observed data. This emphasis on evidence is reflected throughout the book, which presents a range of criticisms of Darwinism based on the lack of sufficient empirical support.

What did the book suggest about the relationship between Darwinism and alternative theories of evolution?

  • Darwinism and alternative theories were fundamentally incompatible
  • Darwinism and alternative theories were complementary and could coexist
  • Darwinism was superior to all other theories of evolution
  • Alternative theories were simply wrong and should be ignored

Correct Answer: Darwinism and alternative theories were fundamentally incompatible

Correct Answer Explanation: The book suggests that Darwinism and alternative theories of evolution were fundamentally incompatible. It argues that Darwin’s theory, based on natural selection and random mutations, was incompatible with theories that emphasized internal forces and predetermined lines of development. This suggests that the author believed that the scientific community was facing a choice between competing paradigms.

What was the author’s main critique of Darwin’s theory of sexual selection?

  • It was not based on sufficient evidence
  • It was a circular argument
  • It was a teleological explanation
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: The author’s main critique of Darwin’s theory of sexual selection was that it was not based on sufficient evidence, it was a circular argument, and it was a teleological explanation. He argued that Darwin’s theory did not adequately account for the complex and often unpredictable patterns of mate selection observed in nature. The book suggests that the theory of sexual selection was more of a speculative hypothesis than a well-supported scientific explanation.

What did the author believe was the significance of the book “At the Deathbed of Darwinism”?

  • It was a definitive proof of Darwinism
  • It was a final blow to Darwinism
  • It was a contribution to the ongoing debate about evolution
  • It was a personal attack on Darwin

Correct Answer: It was a contribution to the ongoing debate about evolution

Correct Answer Explanation: The author believed that the book “At the Deathbed of Darwinism” was a contribution to the ongoing debate about evolution. He argued that his book was not intended to be a definitive proof of Darwinism or a final blow to the theory. Instead, he aimed to stimulate further discussion and research, ultimately contributing to a more nuanced and complex understanding of the processes of evolution.

What was the book’s main message about the process of science?

  • Science is a static process
  • Science is a process of constant revision
  • Science is a process of proving theories
  • Science is a process of discovering the truth

Correct Answer: Science is a process of constant revision

Correct Answer Explanation: The book’s main message about the process of science is that it is a process of constant revision. The author argues that scientific knowledge is not static, but rather is constantly being refined and challenged by new evidence and ideas. He suggests that Darwinism was a valuable contribution to our understanding of evolution, but that it was not the final word on the subject.

What did the author believe was the most important challenge facing evolutionary theory in the future?

  • To provide a definitive proof of Darwinism
  • To find the missing link between humans and apes
  • To develop a more complete and accurate theory of evolution
  • To convince everyone of the truth of evolution

Correct Answer: To develop a more complete and accurate theory of evolution

Correct Answer Explanation: The author believed that the most important challenge facing evolutionary theory in the future was to develop a more complete and accurate theory of evolution. He argued that Darwinism was flawed and incomplete, and that new theories were needed to account for the complexities of life. The book’s focus on alternative theories, such as orthogenesis and heterogenesis, suggests that the author believed that the future of evolutionary theory lay in the development of more comprehensive and nuanced explanations for the processes that shaped life on Earth.

What did the author believe was the ultimate goal of science?

  • To prove Darwinism
  • To disprove Darwinism
  • To provide a complete and accurate picture of the world
  • To discover the meaning of life

Correct Answer: To provide a complete and accurate picture of the world

Correct Answer Explanation: The author believed that the ultimate goal of science was to provide a complete and accurate picture of the world. He argued that science was a process of inquiry and discovery, aimed at understanding the natural world. The book’s critique of Darwinism and its exploration of alternative theories reflect the author’s belief that science should strive for a comprehensive and accurate understanding of the universe.

What did the author believe was the impact of Darwinism on society?

  • It had a positive impact on society
  • It had a negative impact on society
  • It had no impact on society
  • It was too early to tell what its impact would be

Correct Answer: It had a mixed impact on society

Correct Answer Explanation: The author’s view on the impact of Darwinism on society is not explicitly stated in the book. However, it can be inferred that he believed that Darwinism had a mixed impact on society. On the one hand, he acknowledged the influence of Darwin’s work on scientific thought and the development of new theories. On the other hand, he criticized Darwin’s theory for its shortcomings and argued that it had been misinterpreted and misused by some. This suggests that the author believed that Darwinism had both positive and negative consequences for society.

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