Charles Darwin’s the Foundations of the Origin of SpeciesTrivia Questions and Answers

In 1842, Charles Darwin wrote a first draft of his theory of evolution by natural selection. He called it “A Sketch of the Origin of Species.” Darwin’s ideas were inspired by his observations of nature during his famous voyage on the HMS Beagle. What did Darwin observe during his voyage that led him to propose the theory of natural selection?

  • The existence of fossils of extinct animals
  • The diversity of life on the Galapagos Islands
  • The different breeds of domesticated animals
  • The presence of different types of insects in different environments

Correct Answer: The diversity of life on the Galapagos Islands

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin observed that the Galapagos Islands were home to a diverse array of species that were similar to those found on the mainland of South America but had distinct adaptations to their specific island environments. This observation led him to realize that species could change over time, and that this change was driven by natural selection.

Darwin’s 1844 essay expanded on his 1842 “Sketch.” What key idea did Darwin propose in both essays that challenged traditional views of species?

  • Species are fixed entities created by God
  • Species can change over time through natural selection
  • Species are all related to each other through a common ancestor
  • Species are constantly evolving into new species

Correct Answer: Species can change over time through natural selection

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin proposed that species are not fixed entities but can change over time through a process of natural selection. This challenged the prevailing view that species were created separately and could not change.

Darwin explored the concept of variation under domestication, where humans have created a wide array of breeds through selective breeding. What type of animal did Darwin use as an example of how humans can manipulate variation through selection?

  • Horses
  • Dogs
  • Pigs
  • Chickens

Correct Answer: Dogs

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin observed that the variety of dog breeds is a testament to the power of artificial selection. Humans have selectively bred dogs for different traits, leading to the creation of diverse breeds with a wide range of sizes, shapes, colors, and temperaments.

Darwin was interested in the relationship between natural selection and the evolution of complex traits. He proposed that complex traits evolve gradually over time. What example did Darwin use to illustrate how complex traits could evolve through gradual change?

  • The eye
  • The brain
  • The wing
  • The beak

Correct Answer: The eye

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin used the eye as an example of a complex trait that could have evolved through a gradual process of natural selection. He argued that even a slightly more developed eye could be beneficial to an organism, and over time, these small changes could lead to the evolution of a complex eye.

Darwin believed that the struggle for existence is a key factor driving natural selection. What did Darwin observe that led him to propose this idea?

  • The high rate of reproduction in organisms
  • The limited resources available to organisms
  • The competition between organisms for food and mates
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin observed that organisms tend to produce more offspring than the environment can support, leading to competition for resources. This struggle for existence favors individuals with traits that make them better adapted to their environment, leading to natural selection.

Darwin argued that species are not fixed entities but are instead “races” that have been formed naturally by a process of descent with modification through natural selection. What is a race, according to Darwin?

  • A group of organisms with a common ancestor
  • A group of organisms with similar characteristics
  • A group of organisms adapted to a specific environment
  • A group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring

Correct Answer: A group of organisms with similar characteristics

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin proposed that species are not fixed entities but are instead “races” that have been formed naturally by a process of descent with modification through natural selection. He defined a “race” as a group of organisms within a species that share specific characteristics, often resulting from human selection.

Darwin recognized the limitations of the fossil record, acknowledging that it doesn’t provide a complete picture of the history of life on Earth. What did Darwin suggest could account for the gaps in the fossil record?

  • The extinction of species
  • The slow rate of sediment accumulation
  • The difficulty of finding fossils
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin acknowledged that the fossil record is incomplete, but he attributed this to the extinction of species, the slow rate of sediment accumulation, and the difficulty of finding fossils. He argued that these factors could account for the many gaps in our understanding of the history of life on Earth.

Darwin was aware that his theory of evolution was controversial and challenged the prevailing view of creationism. What was the primary source of evidence that Darwin used to support his theory of evolution?

  • Fossils
  • Comparative anatomy
  • Biogeography
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin used a wide range of evidence to support his theory of evolution, including fossils, comparative anatomy, and biogeography. He argued that these sources of evidence all pointed to the fact that species have changed over time and that this change is driven by natural selection.

Darwin used the example of the Galapagos mockingbird to illustrate the impact of isolation on the evolution of new species. What did Darwin observe about the mockingbirds on different islands in the Galapagos?

  • They had different beak shapes
  • They had different songs
  • They had different colors
  • They had all of the above

Correct Answer: They had all of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin observed that the mockingbirds on different islands in the Galapagos Archipelago had distinct variations in their beak shapes, songs, and colors. He argued that these differences were the result of isolation and adaptation to different island environments, and that over time these variations could lead to the formation of new species.

Darwin cited the case of sheep in Spain that are forced to migrate annually to demonstrate the inheritability of complex habits. What was unique about these sheep?

  • They had a unique breed of sheep
  • They had a unique pattern of migration
  • They had a unique resistance to disease
  • They had a unique diet

Correct Answer: They had a unique pattern of migration

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin noted the case of sheep in Spain that are forced to migrate annually, highlighting the inheritability of even complex habits. He argued that these sheep had evolved a unique pattern of migration over many generations, demonstrating the power of natural selection to shape even complex behaviors.

Darwin observed that the wild horse population in the Falkland Islands is limited by the loss of foals due to harsh conditions. What did Darwin conclude from this observation?

  • The environment can play a significant role in the survival and reproduction of organisms
  • The struggle for existence is an important factor in natural selection
  • The rate of extinction can be influenced by environmental factors
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin observed that the wild horse population in the Falkland Islands is limited by the loss of foals due to harsh conditions. He concluded that the environment can play a significant role in the survival and reproduction of organisms, that the struggle for existence is an important factor in natural selection, and that the rate of extinction can be influenced by environmental factors.

Darwin argued that the reproductive system is highly sensitive to environmental changes. What example did Darwin use to illustrate this point?

  • The sterility of hybrids
  • The infertility of animals in captivity
  • The double flowers of cultivated plants
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin argued that the reproductive system is highly sensitive to environmental changes. He used examples like the sterility of hybrids, the infertility of animals in captivity, and the double flowers of cultivated plants to illustrate this point. He believed that these examples demonstrate how even subtle changes in the environment can affect an organism’s ability to reproduce.

Darwin discussed the immense potential for geometrical growth in organisms. What example did Darwin use to illustrate this point?

  • The doubling of the human population
  • The number of robins in a population
  • The mice of La Plata
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin discussed the immense potential for geometrical growth in organisms. He used examples like the doubling of the human population, the number of robins in a population, and the mice of La Plata to illustrate this point. These examples demonstrate how rapidly populations can increase in size if conditions are favorable.

Darwin used the example of the Australian bush-turkey to highlight how complex instincts could have evolved through gradual selection. What is unique about the Australian bush-turkey’s nesting behavior?

  • It builds a nest of fermenting materials
  • It uses tools to build its nest
  • It migrates long distances to breed
  • It has a complex social structure

Correct Answer: It builds a nest of fermenting materials

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin used the example of the Australian bush-turkey to highlight how complex instincts could have evolved through gradual selection. This bird builds a large nest of fermenting materials to incubate its eggs, showing how complex instincts can evolve through gradual selection.

Darwin argued that the same processes of variation and selection that operate in domestication are also at play in nature. What did Darwin mean by this?

  • Humans have a significant impact on the evolution of species
  • Natural selection is a powerful force in shaping the diversity of life
  • Domestication can lead to the creation of new species
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin argued that the same processes of variation and selection that operate in domestication are also at play in nature. He believed that humans have a significant impact on the evolution of species, that natural selection is a powerful force in shaping the diversity of life, and that domestication can lead to the creation of new species.

Darwin cited the numerous extinct mammifers of South America as evidence for the ongoing process of extinction and evolution. What did Darwin conclude from this observation?

  • Species are not fixed entities and can become extinct
  • Extinction is a natural part of the evolutionary process
  • The fossil record provides evidence for the evolution of species
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin cited the numerous extinct mammifers of South America as evidence for the ongoing process of extinction and evolution. He concluded that species are not fixed entities and can become extinct, that extinction is a natural part of the evolutionary process, and that the fossil record provides evidence for the evolution of species.

Darwin observed that the Greyhounds, from the rough deerhound to the smooth Persian, illustrate the range of variation that can occur within a single species through selection. What did Darwin conclude from this observation?

  • Selection can lead to a wide range of variation within a species
  • Artificial selection can be used to create new breeds of animals
  • Domestication can influence the evolution of species
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin observed that the Greyhounds, from the rough deerhound to the smooth Persian, illustrate the range of variation that can occur within a single species through selection. He concluded that selection can lead to a wide range of variation within a species, that artificial selection can be used to create new breeds of animals, and that domestication can influence the evolution of species.

Darwin discussed the vastness of geological time, arguing that the periods between major geological formations are much longer than previously thought, making it difficult to find a complete fossil record of the transitions between species. How did Darwin’s understanding of geological time impact his theory of evolution?

  • It provided evidence for the gradual nature of evolution
  • It explained the incompleteness of the fossil record
  • It challenged the prevailing view that the Earth was relatively young
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin’s understanding of geological time impacted his theory of evolution in several ways. It provided evidence for the gradual nature of evolution, explained the incompleteness of the fossil record, and challenged the prevailing view that the Earth was relatively young.

Darwin’s essays, which predate his famous Origin of Species, provide a unique glimpse into his early thinking about evolution. What key aspect of Darwin’s thinking is highlighted in these early essays?

  • His belief in the power of natural selection
  • His understanding of the importance of variation
  • His recognition of the limitations of the fossil record
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin’s essays, which predate his famous Origin of Species, provide a unique glimpse into his early thinking about evolution. These essays highlight his belief in the power of natural selection, his understanding of the importance of variation, and his recognition of the limitations of the fossil record.

Darwin observed that many animals, when removed from their natural habitats and kept in captivity, become infertile, even when well-fed and seemingly healthy. What did Darwin conclude from this observation?

  • The environment plays a significant role in the fertility of organisms
  • Domestication can lead to changes in the reproductive system
  • Isolation can influence the evolution of species
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin observed that many animals, when removed from their natural habitats and kept in captivity, become infertile, even when well-fed and seemingly healthy. He concluded that the environment plays a significant role in the fertility of organisms, that domestication can lead to changes in the reproductive system, and that isolation can influence the evolution of species.

Darwin cited the example of the Tailor-Bird to demonstrate the adaptability and complexity of instinctive behaviors. What is unique about the Tailor-Bird’s nesting behavior?

  • It uses threads to sew together leaves for its nest
  • It builds a nest of sticks and twigs
  • It lays its eggs in the nests of other birds
  • It has a complex social structure

Correct Answer: It uses threads to sew together leaves for its nest

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin cited the example of the Tailor-Bird to demonstrate the adaptability and complexity of instinctive behaviors. This bird uses threads to sew together leaves for its nest, and will use artificial threads when available. This demonstrates the adaptability and complexity of instinctive behaviors.

Darwin used the example of the Hive-Bee to exemplify the intricate and often unfathomable nature of instinctive behavior. What is so remarkable about the Hive-Bee’s behavior?

  • Its complex social structure
  • Its ability to communicate through dance
  • Its intricate architecture
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin used the example of the Hive-Bee to exemplify the intricate and often unfathomable nature of instinctive behavior. The remarkable architecture and complex social structure of the hive bee exemplify the intricate and often unfathomable nature of instinctive behavior.

Darwin discussed the existence of 1200 different varieties of cabbage to underscore the diversity of races that can be created through human selection. What did Darwin conclude from this observation?

  • Humans can have a significant impact on the diversity of species
  • Selection can lead to the creation of new varieties of organisms
  • Domestication can influence the evolution of species
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin discussed the existence of 1200 different varieties of cabbage to underscore the diversity of races that can be created through human selection. He concluded that humans can have a significant impact on the diversity of species, that selection can lead to the creation of new varieties of organisms, and that domestication can influence the evolution of species.

Darwin argued that changes in environmental conditions, especially if prolonged and in combination with limited resources, can lead to a shift in the relative proportions of species within a region, ultimately driving variation and adaptation. What is this process known as?

  • Natural selection
  • Artificial selection
  • Genetic drift
  • Speciation

Correct Answer: Natural selection

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin argued that changes in environmental conditions, especially if prolonged and in combination with limited resources, can lead to a shift in the relative proportions of species within a region, ultimately driving variation and adaptation. This process is known as natural selection.

Darwin discussed the importance of isolation, such as on islands or due to geographic barriers, in the formation of new species. Why is isolation important for speciation?

  • It allows for variations to accumulate and become distinct from the parent population
  • It reduces the flow of genes between populations
  • It can lead to the development of unique adaptations
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin discussed the importance of isolation, such as on islands or due to geographic barriers, in the formation of new species. Isolation is important for speciation because it allows for variations to accumulate and become distinct from the parent population, reduces the flow of genes between populations, and can lead to the development of unique adaptations.

Darwin observed that domestication, especially when combined with excess food, increases variation in organisms. What did Darwin conclude from this observation?

  • Domestication can lead to changes in the genetic makeup of organisms
  • Excess food can influence the rate of variation in organisms
  • Humans can manipulate the evolution of species
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin observed that domestication, especially when combined with excess food, increases variation in organisms. He concluded that domestication can lead to changes in the genetic makeup of organisms, that excess food can influence the rate of variation in organisms, and that humans can manipulate the evolution of species.

Darwin argued that most congenital peculiarities, including slight differences in structure, are inheritable. What does this mean?

  • Traits passed down from parents to offspring
  • Variations that can be passed down to future generations
  • Traits that are influenced by the environment
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: Variations that can be passed down to future generations

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin argued that most congenital peculiarities, including slight differences in structure, are inheritable. This means that variations that occur in an organism can be passed down to future generations.

Darwin used the example of Lord Western’s Sheep to demonstrate the effectiveness of selective breeding. What was remarkable about Lord Western’s sheep?

  • They were bred for their wool production
  • They were bred for their meat quality
  • They were bred for their resistance to disease
  • They were bred for their size

Correct Answer: They were bred for their wool production

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin used the example of Lord Western’s Sheep to demonstrate the effectiveness of selective breeding. These sheep were bred for their wool production, and the breed was significantly improved in a short time through careful selection.

Darwin observed that domesticated wild-ducks often lose their natural plumage due to changes in diet and lifestyle. What did Darwin conclude from this observation?

  • The environment can influence the development of traits
  • Domestication can lead to changes in the physical characteristics of organisms
  • Artificial selection can lead to the loss of natural traits
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin observed that domesticated wild-ducks often lose their natural plumage due to changes in diet and lifestyle. He concluded that the environment can influence the development of traits, that domestication can lead to changes in the physical characteristics of organisms, and that artificial selection can lead to the loss of natural traits.

Darwin cited the example of the “Ancon” sheep, a breed with short, crooked legs, to illustrate the power of human selection to create new breeds. Why were the Ancon sheep selected for?

  • They could not jump over fences
  • They were better milk producers
  • They were more resistant to disease
  • They had a better wool quality

Correct Answer: They could not jump over fences

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin cited the example of the “Ancon” sheep, a breed with short, crooked legs, to illustrate the power of human selection to create new breeds. The Ancon sheep were selected for because they could not jump over fences.

Darwin observed that the potato, dahlia, and Scotch rose have varied significantly without any known cross-breeding. What did Darwin conclude from this observation?

  • Variation can occur within a single species
  • Domestication can lead to the creation of new varieties
  • Natural selection can operate within a species
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin observed that the potato, dahlia, and Scotch rose have varied significantly without any known cross-breeding. He concluded that variation can occur within a single species, that domestication can lead to the creation of new varieties, and that natural selection can operate within a species.

Darwin observed that many animals become infertile when removed from their natural habitats and kept in captivity. What did Darwin propose as the reason for this infertility?

  • The change in environment can affect the reproductive system
  • Domestication can lead to changes in the genetic makeup of organisms
  • Isolation can influence the evolution of species
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin observed that many animals become infertile when removed from their natural habitats and kept in captivity. He proposed that the change in environment can affect the reproductive system, that domestication can lead to changes in the genetic makeup of organisms, and that isolation can influence the evolution of species.

Darwin observed that the sterility of hybrids is often tied to constitutional differences between species. What does this mean?

  • Species that are closely related are more likely to produce fertile offspring
  • The sterility of hybrids is a result of genetic incompatibility
  • Species that are adapted to different environments are less likely to produce fertile offspring
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin observed that the sterility of hybrids is often tied to constitutional differences between species. This means that species that are closely related are more likely to produce fertile offspring, the sterility of hybrids is a result of genetic incompatibility, and species that are adapted to different environments are less likely to produce fertile offspring.

Darwin observed that double flowers, a common feature in cultivated plants, may result from sterility and an excess of nutrients. What is the relationship between double flowers and sterility?

  • Double flowers are often associated with sterility
  • Double flowers are more common in cultivated plants
  • Double flowers are a result of human selection
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin observed that double flowers, a common feature in cultivated plants, may result from sterility and an excess of nutrients. This suggests that double flowers are often associated with sterility, that they are more common in cultivated plants, and that they are a result of human selection.

Darwin discussed the “Transandantes” sheep, a breed bred for centuries to migrate across Spain. What did Darwin conclude from this observation?

  • Complex habits can be inherited
  • Domestication can lead to the development of new traits
  • Natural selection can operate on behaviors
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin discussed the “Transandantes” sheep, a breed bred for centuries to migrate across Spain. He concluded that complex habits can be inherited, that domestication can lead to the development of new traits, and that natural selection can operate on behaviors.

Darwin argued that the struggle for existence is not constant but recurrent, with periods of intense competition during times of scarcity or environmental change. What did Darwin mean by this?

  • The struggle for existence is not always present
  • The intensity of the struggle for existence can vary
  • Natural selection can act on populations during times of stress
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin argued that the struggle for existence is not constant but recurrent, with periods of intense competition during times of scarcity or environmental change. He meant that the struggle for existence is not always present, that the intensity of the struggle for existence can vary, and that natural selection can act on populations during times of stress.

Darwin argued that selection is crucial for creating new races or breeds. What did Darwin mean by selection?

  • The process of choosing individuals with desired traits for breeding
  • The process of allowing organisms with advantageous traits to survive and reproduce
  • The process of eliminating organisms with undesirable traits
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin argued that selection is crucial for creating new races or breeds. He meant that selection is the process of choosing individuals with desired traits for breeding, the process of allowing organisms with advantageous traits to survive and reproduce, and the process of eliminating organisms with undesirable traits.

Darwin observed that the Bizcacha, a rodent found only on the western side of the Plata River, demonstrates how barriers can limit the distribution of species. What is the significance of this observation?

  • It supports the idea that geographic isolation can lead to speciation
  • It shows how the environment can influence the distribution of species
  • It highlights the role of barriers in shaping biodiversity
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin observed that the Bizcacha, a rodent found only on the western side of the Plata River, demonstrates how barriers can limit the distribution of species. This observation is significant because it supports the idea that geographic isolation can lead to speciation, shows how the environment can influence the distribution of species, and highlights the role of barriers in shaping biodiversity.

Darwin observed that the number of living species is far less than the number of extinct species. What did Darwin conclude from this observation?

  • Extinction is a natural part of the evolutionary process
  • The fossil record provides evidence for the evolution of species
  • The Earth is much older than previously thought
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin observed that the number of living species is far less than the number of extinct species. He concluded that extinction is a natural part of the evolutionary process, that the fossil record provides evidence for the evolution of species, and that the Earth is much older than previously thought.

Darwin argued that the characteristic feature of a species, besides its sterility when crossed with other species, is the uniformity of its individuals. What did Darwin mean by this?

  • Species are not fixed entities but can change over time
  • Species are defined by their ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring
  • The members of a species share a common set of traits
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin argued that the characteristic feature of a species, besides its sterility when crossed with other species, is the uniformity of its individuals. He meant that species are not fixed entities but can change over time, that species are defined by their ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring, and that the members of a species share a common set of traits.

Darwin discussed the “Turnspit” dog, a breed specifically bred for its ability to turn a spit for roasting meat. What did Darwin conclude from this observation?

  • Humans can select for specific traits in animals
  • Artificial selection can lead to the development of specialized breeds
  • Domestication can influence the evolution of species
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin discussed the “Turnspit” dog, a breed specifically bred for its ability to turn a spit for roasting meat. He concluded that humans can select for specific traits in animals, that artificial selection can lead to the development of specialized breeds, and that domestication can influence the evolution of species.

Darwin noted that the Galapagos Archipelago is almost entirely composed of species not found elsewhere. What did Darwin conclude from this observation?

  • Isolation can lead to the development of unique species
  • The environment can influence the evolution of species
  • The Galapagos Islands provide a unique opportunity to study evolution
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin noted that the Galapagos Archipelago is almost entirely composed of species not found elsewhere. He concluded that isolation can lead to the development of unique species, that the environment can influence the evolution of species, and that the Galapagos Islands provide a unique opportunity to study evolution.

Darwin observed that the species of bees, from the humble bee to the hive bee, exhibit a gradual progression of instinct. What did Darwin conclude from this observation?

  • Complex instincts can evolve through gradual selection
  • Natural selection can operate on behaviors
  • The environment can influence the development of instincts
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin observed that the species of bees, from the humble bee to the hive bee, exhibit a gradual progression of instinct. He concluded that complex instincts can evolve through gradual selection, that natural selection can operate on behaviors, and that the environment can influence the development of instincts.

Darwin acknowledged that the time required for sediment to accumulate and form geological formations is very long. How did this impact his theory of evolution?

  • It supported the idea that evolution is a gradual process
  • It explained why the fossil record is incomplete
  • It challenged the prevailing view that the Earth was relatively young
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin acknowledged that the time required for sediment to accumulate and form geological formations is very long. This impacted his theory of evolution by supporting the idea that evolution is a gradual process, explaining why the fossil record is incomplete, and challenging the prevailing view that the Earth was relatively young.

Darwin argued that the range of a species is correlated with its longevity. What does this mean?

  • Species with wider ranges are more likely to persist for longer periods
  • Species with smaller ranges are more vulnerable to extinction
  • The environment can influence the distribution of species
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin argued that the range of a species is correlated with its longevity. This means that species with wider ranges are more likely to persist for longer periods, species with smaller ranges are more vulnerable to extinction, and the environment can influence the distribution of species.

Darwin used the example of the “Transandantes” sheep, which migrate annually across Spain, to demonstrate the inheritability of even complex habits. What is the significance of this observation?

  • It supports the idea that natural selection can operate on behaviors
  • It shows how domestication can lead to the development of new traits
  • It highlights the role of the environment in shaping behaviors
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin used the example of the “Transandantes” sheep, which migrate annually across Spain, to demonstrate the inheritability of even complex habits. This observation is significant because it supports the idea that natural selection can operate on behaviors, shows how domestication can lead to the development of new traits, and highlights the role of the environment in shaping behaviors.

Darwin cited the case of the mice of La Plata to highlight the impact of environmental changes on population size. What did Darwin observe about the mice of La Plata?

  • They experienced a dramatic increase in population during a period of drought
  • They were adapted to a specific environment
  • They competed for limited resources
  • They all of the above

Correct Answer: They all of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin cited the case of the mice of La Plata to highlight the impact of environmental changes on population size. He observed that they experienced a dramatic increase in population during a period of drought, that they were adapted to a specific environment, and that they competed for limited resources. This observation demonstrates the importance of the environment in shaping population dynamics.

Darwin observed that the “Transandantes” sheep have a unique pattern of migration. What did Darwin conclude from this observation?

  • Complex habits can be inherited
  • Domestication can influence the evolution of behaviors
  • Natural selection can operate on behaviors
  • All of the above

Correct Answer: All of the above

Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin observed that the “Transandantes” sheep have a unique pattern of migration. He concluded that complex habits can be inherited, that domestication can influence the evolution of behaviors, and that natural selection can operate on behaviors. This observation supports the idea that behaviors can evolve through natural selection.

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