Chinese Medicine Visual Culture Trivia Questions

1. Ancient tomb figurines provide valuable insights into early Chinese medical knowledge. The Shuangbaoshan 双包山 figurine, dating back to the Western Han Dynasty, features red lacquer lines that may represent what?

  • A. Early acupuncture points
  • B. The flow of Qi
  • C. The internal organs
  • D. The boundaries of the body

Answer: B. The flow of Qi

The red lacquer lines on the Shuangbaoshan figurine are believed to represent the flow of Qi, a vital energy force in Chinese medicine. These lines are often interpreted as early depictions of the jingluo (channels and networks) that govern the circulation of Qi throughout the body.

2. Moxibustion was a widespread practice in China and Tibet long before the development of acupuncture. What are the earliest extant moxibustion charts?

  • A. The Mawangdui Manuscripts
  • B. The Dunhuang Manuscripts
  • C. The Yongle Dadian
  • D. The Ishimpō

Answer: B. The Dunhuang Manuscripts

The earliest extant moxibustion charts, which depict specific points on the body for moxibustion treatment, are found in the Dunhuang Manuscripts, dating back to the 9th century. These manuscripts provide valuable insights into the history and practice of moxibustion, a key technique in Chinese medicine.

3. The earliest known depictions of fetal development appear in the Ishimpō 醫心方, a 10th-century Japanese compilation of Chinese medical texts. What do these illustrations show?

  • A. The foetus growing monthly inside the pregnant woman’s body
  • B. The stages of labour and delivery
  • C. The use of herbs for pregnancy complications
  • D. The connection between the mother’s emotions and the foetus

Answer: A. The foetus growing monthly inside the pregnant woman’s body

The illustrations in the Ishimpō depict the foetus growing monthly inside the pregnant woman’s body. They offer a unique glimpse into early Chinese understanding of fetal development and pregnancy, reflecting the emphasis on observation and visual representation in traditional Chinese medicine.

4. Early Chinese medicine was not limited to purely secular practices. What do ancient texts and illustrations reflect?

  • A. The influence of Western medicine on Chinese medical practices
  • B. The intersection of medicine with religious and magical beliefs
  • C. The development of acupuncture as a primary treatment method
  • D. The use of visual culture to market medicines

Answer: B. The intersection of medicine with religious and magical beliefs

Ancient Chinese texts and illustrations reveal the deep integration of medical practices with religious and magical beliefs. This reflects the holistic approach of Chinese medicine, which considers the physical, mental, and spiritual well-being of the individual.

5. Visual androcentrism was a dominant feature of Chinese medical illustration. The Yuzuan yizong jinjian 御纂醫宗 金鑑, a large-scale 18th-century medical text, prominently features what?

  • A. Female figures
  • B. Male figures
  • C. Illustrations of internal organs
  • D. The use of acupuncture points

Answer: B. Male figures

The Yuzuan yizong jinjian, a comprehensive 18th-century medical text, prominently features male figures. This reflects the prevalent visual androcentrism in Chinese medical illustration, where women are often depicted only in contexts specifically related to female ailments.

6. Images of the body have played an important role in the early Western reception of acupuncture. What do these images often adapt to?

  • A. Chinese iconographic conventions
  • B. Western iconographic conventions
  • C. Traditional Tibetan medical illustrations
  • D. The use of astrological symbols

Answer: B. Western iconographic conventions

Images of the body used to explain acupuncture in the West often adapt to Western iconographic conventions, while still preserving essential features of the technique, such as the jingluo (channels and networks). This reflects the ongoing dialogue and exchange between different medical traditions.

7. The concept of the human spirit (renshen 人神) circulating through the body in accordance with the lunar cycle is a prominent feature of what?

  • A. Traditional Chinese medicine
  • B. Traditional Tibetan medicine
  • C. Both Chinese and Tibetan medicine
  • D. Ancient Japanese medicine

Answer: C. Both Chinese and Tibetan medicine

The concept of the human spirit (renshen 人神) circulating through the body in accordance with the lunar cycle is a prominent feature of both Chinese and Tibetan medicine. This shared belief reflects the influence of Daoism and the interconnectedness of the human body with the cosmos in both traditions.

8. The Tibetan medical tradition places a significant emphasis on what?

  • A. The use of acupuncture
  • B. The power of herbs
  • C. The importance of diet
  • D. Divination

Answer: D. Divination

The Tibetan medical tradition places a significant emphasis on divination, as reflected in the inclusion of magic squares, trigrams, and astrological cycles within Tibetan medical illustrations. This practice highlights the intersection of medicine and spiritual beliefs in Tibetan culture.

9. The Mongol Empire facilitated the transmission of medical knowledge between China and the West. Who translated Chinese medical texts into Persian?

  • A. Marco Polo
  • B. Rashīd al-Dīn
  • C. Ibn Sina
  • D. Avicenna

Answer: B. Rashīd al-Dīn

Rashīd al-Dīn (1247–1318), a Persian scholar and physician, translated Chinese medical texts into Persian, including images of the internal organs and the circulation of blood. This act of cultural exchange contributed to the spread of medical knowledge across Eurasia during the Mongol period.

10. The use of auspicious and religious imagery is a distinctive feature of what?

  • A. Traditional Chinese medicine
  • B. Traditional Tibetan medicine
  • C. Western medicine
  • D. Ancient Japanese medicine

Answer: A. Traditional Chinese medicine

The use of auspicious and religious imagery is a distinctive feature of Chinese medical illustrations. The Golden Mirror (Yuzuan yizong jinjian 御纂醫宗金鑑) uses images of Daoist immortals and deities to convey the efficacy of the male doctor. This reflects the integration of religious and spiritual beliefs with medical practices in Chinese culture.

11. The practice of ‘Great Perfection’ (Dzogchen), a key school of Tibetan Buddhism, involves rigorous body-based practices. What do the Lukhang murals depict?

  • A. The use of acupuncture points
  • B. The preparation of medicinal herbs
  • C. The yogic movements and meditations used in Dzogchen
  • D. The role of the Medicine Buddha in healing

Answer: C. The yogic movements and meditations used in Dzogchen

The Lukhang murals, a series of 17th-century paintings, depict the yogic movements and meditations used in Dzogchen, a key school of Tibetan Buddhism. These murals offer a visual representation of the profound connection between body, mind, and spirit in Tibetan spiritual practices.

12. The development of modern medicine in China was shaped by both scientific and political forces. What did the government encourage?

  • A. The study of Chinese medicine and the development of public health campaigns
  • B. The adoption of Western medical practices exclusively
  • C. The use of traditional Chinese medicine for all ailments
  • D. The rejection of foreign pharmaceuticals

Answer: A. The study of Chinese medicine and the development of public health campaigns

The Chinese government in the 20th century encouraged the study of Chinese medicine and the development of public health campaigns. This reflects a complex interplay between traditional and modern medicine, as well as the government’s role in promoting public health.

13. Early 20th-century China saw a boom in the marketing of medicines, with both foreign and domestic products vying for a share of the market. What did these products often utilize?

  • A. The use of Western imagery and traditional Chinese concepts
  • B. The emphasis on scientific evidence and clinical trials
  • C. The promotion of purely herbal remedies
  • D. The rejection of advertising and marketing strategies

Answer: A. The use of Western imagery and traditional Chinese concepts

Early 20th-century China witnessed a surge in the marketing of medicines, with products often combining Western imagery and traditional Chinese concepts to appeal to a broad audience. This reflects the complex interplay of traditional and modern medicine in a rapidly changing society.

14. What is the estimated number of images of medicinal substances in existing Chinese materia medica texts?

  • A. Over 1,000
  • B. Over 5,000
  • C. Over 10,000
  • D. Over 20,000

Answer: C. Over 10,000

There are over 10,000 images of medicinal substances in existing Chinese materia medica texts. This vast visual archive reflects the importance of visual representation in traditional Chinese medicine, where the identification and understanding of herbs play a crucial role.

15. How many images in the Golden Mirror are gendered as male, and only 12 are female?

  • A. Nearly half
  • B. Over two-thirds
  • C. Almost all
  • D. Less than a quarter

Answer: A. Nearly half

Nearly half of the 484 images in the Golden Mirror are gendered as male, and only 12 are female. This significant gender imbalance reflects the prevalent androcentrism in Chinese medical illustration.

16. Emperor Chengzu (Yongle, r. 1402–24), commissioned the Yongle Dadian 永樂大典 (Yongle Encyclopaedia or Yongle Canon), which included over how many Chinese characters?

  • A. Over 100,000,000
  • B. Over 500,000,000
  • C. Over 1,000,000,000
  • D. Over 3,700,000,000

Answer: D. Over 3,700,000,000

The Yongle Dadian, a massive encyclopedia commissioned by Emperor Yongle, included over 3,700,000,000 Chinese characters, encompassing a wide range of subjects, including medicine. This colossal work reflects the vastness of knowledge and the importance of written records in Chinese culture.

17. Prince Zhu Su 朱橚, the fifth son of the founding emperor of the Ming dynasty, personally supervised the cultivation of how many medicinal plants?

  • A. Over 100
  • B. Over 200
  • C. Over 300
  • D. Over 400

Answer: D. Over 400

Prince Zhu Su, a prominent figure in the Ming dynasty, personally supervised the cultivation of over 414 medicinal plants in a botanical garden. These plants were then illustrated, contributing to the visual documentation and understanding of materia medica in China.

18. The Bencao pinhui jingyao 本草品彙精要 (Classified Treasury of Materia Medica) contains how many medicinal entries and polychrome illustrations?

  • A. 1,000 medicinal entries and 500 illustrations
  • B. 1,500 medicinal entries and 1,000 illustrations
  • C. 1,815 medicinal entries and 1,360 illustrations
  • D. 2,000 medicinal entries and 1,500 illustrations

Answer: C. 1,815 medicinal entries and 1,360 illustrations

The Bencao pinhui jingyao, a comprehensive materia medica text, contains 1,815 medicinal entries and 1,360 polychrome illustrations, providing a detailed visual guide to the medicinal substances used in traditional Chinese medicine.

19. How many human figures are depicted in the Buyi Lei Gong paozhi bianlan 補遺雷公炮製便覽 (Lei Gong’s Guide to Drug Preparation with Addenda)?

  • A. Over 100
  • B. Over 200
  • C. Over 500
  • D. Over 800

Answer: D. Over 800

The Buyi Lei Gong paozhi bianlan, a text on drug preparation, features over 866 human figures, illustrating various aspects of the process, from the gathering and processing of medicinal herbs to the application of specific treatments.

20. The Dunhuang Mogao Caves 莫高窟 (Thousand Buddha Caves 千佛洞) contains over how many excavated and restored grottos?

  • A. Over 50
  • B. Over 100
  • C. Over 200
  • D. Over 300

Answer: C. Over 200

The Dunhuang Mogao Caves, a UNESCO World Heritage site, contains over 200 excavated and restored grottos, many of which feature murals and sculptures that provide valuable insights into the history and culture of the Silk Road.

21. How many images of the Medicine Buddha (Bhaiṣajya-guru) are in the Mogao Grottos?

  • A. Over 20
  • B. Over 50
  • C. Over 100
  • D. Over 200

Answer: C. Over 100

The Mogao Grottos contain over 100 images of the Medicine Buddha, a central figure in Buddhist healing traditions. These images reflect the intersection of religious and medical beliefs in ancient China.

22. The collection of medical manuscripts discovered at Dunhuang includes over how many texts related to medicine?

  • A. Over 20
  • B. Over 50
  • C. Over 100
  • D. Over 200

Answer: C. Over 100

The Dunhuang Manuscripts, a treasure trove of ancient texts, include over 100 texts related to medicine, as well as a few texts in Tibetan and Khotanese. These manuscripts offer a unique window into the history of medicine and cultural exchange along the Silk Road.

23. Over how many texts on Chinese medicine were published before 1949?

  • A. Over 5,000
  • B. Over 10,000
  • C. Over 12,000
  • D. Over 15,000

Answer: C. Over 12,000

Over 12,000 texts on Chinese medicine were published before 1949, including 629 works on external medicine and traumatology. This vast body of literature reflects the long and rich history of medical knowledge development in China.

24. According to government records, how many medical staff did the Tang dynasty employ in the Imperial Medical Office (Taiyi shu 太醫署)?

  • A. 50
  • B. 100
  • C. 200
  • D. 300

Answer: C. 200

The Tang dynasty, known for its flourishing arts and sciences, employed 200 medical staff in the Imperial Medical Office, reflecting the importance of healthcare for the imperial court and the broader population.

25. Over how many patent medicines were on sale in Korea by the 1920s?

  • A. Over 500
  • B. Over 1,000
  • C. Over 1,500
  • D. Over 2,000

Answer: C. Over 1,500

By the 1920s, over 1,500 patent medicines were on sale in Korea, reflecting the growing demand for medical products and the emergence of a commercialized healthcare system.

26. What is the name of one of the largest and most successful pharmaceutical companies in South Korea?

  • A. Yuhan Corporation
  • B. Samsung
  • C. LG
  • D. Hyundai

Answer: A. Yuhan Corporation

The Yuhan Corporation, founded in 1926, is one of the largest and most successful pharmaceutical companies in South Korea, playing a significant role in the development and distribution of medicines.

27. During its 17 years of publication (1915–31), the Ladies’ Journal (Funü zazhi 婦女雜誌) published over how many advertisements for patent medicines?

  • A. Over 200
  • B. Over 500
  • C. Over 900
  • D. Over 1,200

Answer: C. Over 900

The Ladies’ Journal, a prominent magazine in early 20th-century China, published over 900 advertisements for patent medicines, highlighting the increasing role of advertising in promoting medical products.

28. What term refers to the body of knowledge regarding materia medica, and to specific Materia Medica or Pharmacopoeia texts?

  • A. Waike
  • B. Bencao
  • C. Zangfu
  • D. Yangsheng

Answer: B. Bencao

Bencao refers to the body of knowledge regarding materia medica, and to specific Materia Medica or Pharmacopoeia texts, encompassing the identification, properties, and uses of medicinal substances.

29. What term refers to a form of therapeutic exercise practiced in ancient China, often involving mimicking animal movements, for restoring health and alleviating ailments?

  • A. Daoyin
  • B. Qigong
  • C. Jiu
  • D. Fangzhong shu

Answer: A. Daoyin

Daoyin refers to a form of therapeutic exercise practiced in ancient China, often involving mimicking animal movements, for restoring health and alleviating ailments. It is considered a precursor to modern Qigong practices.

30. What is a school of Tibetan Buddhism that emphasizes the innate, non-dual nature of consciousness and the practice of ‘self-liberation’ rather than ritualistic transformation?

  • A. Rgyud bzhi
  • B. Zangfu
  • C. Dzogchen
  • D. Neidan

Answer: C. Dzogchen

Dzogchen, a prominent school of Tibetan Buddhism, emphasizes the innate, non-dual nature of consciousness and the practice of ‘self-liberation’ through meditation and yogic practices.

31. What term refers to a genre of ancient Chinese literature that deals with sexual techniques for promoting health and longevity, often drawing on the principles of Daoism and yangsheng?

  • A. Mingtang
  • B. Fangzhong shu
  • C. Neijing
  • D. Wuxing

Answer: B. Fangzhong shu

Fangzhong shu, meaning “Arts of the Bedchamber,” refers to a genre of ancient Chinese literature that deals with sexual techniques for promoting health and longevity, often drawing on the principles of Daoism and yangsheng.

32. What is a mythical Chinese diagram that represents the order of the cosmos and its relationship to the Five Agents (五行)?

  • A. Hetu
  • B. Taiji
  • C. Jingluo
  • D. Jiaoqi

Answer: A. Hetu

The Hetu, or River Diagram, is a mythical Chinese diagram that represents the order of the cosmos and its relationship to the Five Agents (五行), a fundamental principle in Chinese cosmogony.

33. What is a thiamine deficiency disease known in ancient China and attributed to the accumulation of Qi 氣 in the lower body?

  • A. Jiaoqi
  • B. Jingmai
  • C. Neidan
  • D. Mingtang

Answer: A. Jiaoqi

Jiaoqi, meaning “Beriberi,” is a thiamine deficiency disease known in ancient China and attributed to the accumulation of Qi 氣 in the lower body. It is often associated with dietary deficiencies and lack of physical activity.

34. What term refers to a complex network of pathways in the human body that, according to Chinese medicine, govern the flow of Qi and blood, and serve as a basis for acupuncture?

  • A. Wuzang
  • B. Jingluo
  • C. Waike
  • D. Renshen

Answer: B. Jingluo

Jingluo, meaning “Channels and Networks,” refers to a complex network of pathways in the human body that, according to Chinese medicine, govern the flow of Qi and blood, and serve as a basis for acupuncture.

35. What are similar to jingluo, these pathways are also located within the body?

  • A. Jiu
  • B. Neijing
  • C. Mingtang
  • D. Jingmai

Answer: D. Jingmai

Jingmai, meaning “Circulation Channels and Vessels,” are similar to jingluo, these pathways are also located within the body and are considered essential for the circulation of Qi and blood in Chinese medicine.

36. What term refers to the application of heat therapy, often using mugwort (ai艾), to specific points on the body to stimulate Qi 氣 and alleviate illness?

  • A. Jiu
  • B. Taiji
  • C. Daoyin
  • D. Renshen

Answer: A. Jiu

Jiu, meaning “Cautery, Moxibustion,” refers to the application of heat therapy, often using mugwort (ai艾), to specific points on the body to stimulate Qi 氣 and alleviate illness. It is a common technique in traditional Chinese medicine.

37. What is a traditional Chinese architectural space, often depicted in paintings, symbolizing the cosmos and the relationship between the emperor and the people?

  • A. Mingtang
  • B. Taiji
  • C. Neidan
  • D. Waidan

Answer: A. Mingtang

Mingtang, meaning “Bright Hall,” is a traditional Chinese architectural space, often depicted in paintings, symbolizing the cosmos and the relationship between the emperor and the people. It is also used in acupuncture to denote the human body and the interconnectedness of channels.

38. What is a school of Daoist alchemy that focuses on refining the inner elixirs of life within the body, using meditation and breath control?

  • A. Neidan
  • B. Waidan
  • C. Zangfu
  • D. Jingluo

Answer: A. Neidan

Neidan, meaning “Internal Alchemy,” is a school of Daoist alchemy that focuses on refining the inner elixirs of life within the body, using meditation and breath control. It aims to cultivate spiritual and physical longevity.

39. What is the inner space of the body as it is visualised in Daoist alchemy, containing a network of channels, organs, and spirits?

  • A. Neijing
  • B. Hetu
  • C. Wuxing
  • D. Jiaoqi

Answer: A. Neijing

Neijing, meaning “Inner Landscape,” refers to the inner space of the body as it is visualised in Daoist alchemy, containing a network of channels, organs, and spirits. It represents the microcosm of the human body mirroring the macrocosm of the universe.

40. What is a system of breathing and movement exercises for cultivating health and promoting mental wellbeing?

  • A. Qigong
  • B. Daoyin
  • C. Jiu
  • D. Fangzhong shu

Answer: A. Qigong

Qigong, meaning “Merits achieved through breathing [techniques],” is a system of breathing and movement exercises for cultivating health and promoting mental wellbeing. It is rooted in traditional Chinese medicine and emphasizes the cultivation of Qi.

41. What is a spiritual force that, according to Chinese medicine, flows through the body and is vulnerable to disturbances from external factors?

  • A. Renshen
  • B. Taiji
  • C. Neidan
  • D. Waike

Answer: A. Renshen

Renshen, meaning “Human Spirit,” is a spiritual force that, according to Chinese medicine, flows through the body and is vulnerable to disturbances from external factors. It is believed to be connected to mental and emotional well-being.

42. What are the four major tantric medical texts of Tibetan medicine?

  • A. rGyud bzhi
  • B. Zangfu
  • C. Wuzang
  • D. Waike

Answer: A. rGyud bzhi

The rGyud bzhi, meaning “Four Tantras,” are the four major tantric medical texts of Tibetan medicine, encompassing a vast body of knowledge about diagnosis, treatment, and spiritual practices.

43. What is a genre of Japanese erotic art, often featuring exaggerated depictions of the sexual act?

  • A. Shunga
  • B. Jiaoqi
  • C. Neijing
  • D. Wuxing

Answer: A. Shunga

Shunga is a genre of Japanese erotic art, often featuring exaggerated depictions of the sexual act, and is known for its bold and often humorous portrayal of sexuality.

44. What is a key concept in Daoist philosophy, representing the unified origin of Yin and Yang and the duality of the cosmos?

  • A. Taiji
  • B. Hetu
  • C. Jingluo
  • D. Renshen

Answer: A. Taiji

Taiji, meaning “Grand Ultimate,” is a key concept in Daoist philosophy, representing the unified origin of Yin and Yang and the duality of the cosmos. It emphasizes the interconnectedness and balance of opposing forces in nature and the human body.

45. What are the five major internal organs of the body: Heart, Liver, Spleen, Lungs and Kidneys?

  • A. Wuzang
  • B. Zangfu
  • C. Waike
  • D. Jingluo

Answer: A. Wuzang

Wuzang, meaning “Five Viscera,” refers to the five major internal organs of the body: Heart, Liver, Spleen, Lungs and Kidneys, each associated with specific functions and emotions in Chinese medicine.

46. What are the internal organs of the body, divided into the five zang (臟) and six fu (腑)?

  • A. Zangfu
  • B. Wuzang
  • C. Waike
  • D. Jingmai

Answer: A. Zangfu

Zangfu, meaning “Internal Viscera,” refers to the internal organs of the body, divided into the five zang (臟) and six fu (腑), each playing a specific role in maintaining health and balance in Chinese medicine.

47. What is a branch of Chinese medicine focused on the treatment of external diseases, such as wounds, sores, and skin ailments?

  • A. Waike
  • B. Neidan
  • C. Waidan
  • D. Yangsheng

Answer: A. Waike

Waike, meaning “External Medicine,” is a branch of Chinese medicine focused on the treatment of external diseases, such as wounds, sores, and skin ailments. It utilizes a variety of techniques, including herbs, acupuncture, and massage.

48. What is a school of Daoist alchemy that focuses on the physical refinement of elixirs through chemical processes?

  • A. Waidan
  • B. Neidan
  • C. Zangfu
  • D. Jingluo

Answer: A. Waidan

Waidan, meaning “External Alchemy,” is a school of Daoist alchemy that focuses on the physical refinement of elixirs through chemical processes. It aims to achieve immortality and longevity through external means.

49. What are the five elements of Chinese cosmogony: Metal, Wood, Water, Fire and Earth?

  • A. Wuxing
  • B. Taiji
  • C. Jingluo
  • D. Renshen

Answer: A. Wuxing

Wuxing, meaning “Five Agents,” refers to the five elements of Chinese cosmogony: Metal, Wood, Water, Fire and Earth, each representing a specific type of energy and interconnectedness in the natural world and the human body.

50. What is a philosophy of health and longevity that encompasses diet, exercise, sexual practices, and moral conduct, and that aims at achieving harmony between the individual and the cosmos?

  • A. Yangsheng
  • B. Daoyin
  • C. Jiu
  • D. Fangzhong shu

Answer: A. Yangsheng

Yangsheng, meaning “Nourishing Life,” is a philosophy of health and longevity that encompasses diet, exercise, sexual practices, and moral conduct, and that aims at achieving harmony between the individual and the cosmos. It emphasizes living in accordance with the natural order to promote well-being.

51. What is the earliest known complete diagram of the human body identified as ‘Mingtang’ 明堂 (Illuminated Hall or Bright Hall)?

  • A. A 6th-century BCE bamboo slip
  • B. A 3rd-century BCE silk scroll
  • C. A 9th-century Dunhuang manuscript
  • D. A 12th-century medical text

Answer: C. A 9th-century Dunhuang manuscript

The earliest known complete diagram of the human body identified as ‘Mingtang’ 明堂 (Illuminated Hall or Bright Hall) is preserved in a 9th-century Dunhuang manuscript. The word ‘Mingtang’ is written above the image, marking it out as a title.

52. What is the earliest extant diagram of the vulva found among?

  • A. The Shuangbaoshan 双包山 figurine
  • B. The Mawangdui 馬王堆 medical manuscripts
  • C. The Yongle Dadian
  • D. The Ishimpō

Answer: B. The Mawangdui 馬王堆 medical manuscripts

The earliest extant diagram of the vulva is found among the Mawangdui 馬王堆 medical manuscripts, which date back to the 2nd century BCE. This discovery provides valuable insights into early Chinese knowledge of female anatomy and reproductive health.

53. In the late 19th-century, what was the Japanese patent medicine Chūshōtō 中將湯 (Chūshō’s Decoction) marketed to?

  • A. Chinese men seeking to improve their sexual performance
  • B. Chinese women through advertisements emphasizing its ability to promote fertility
  • C. Japanese women seeking to alleviate menstrual pain
  • D. Chinese men seeking to cure impotence

Answer: B. Chinese women through advertisements emphasizing its ability to promote fertility

In the late 19th-century, the Japanese patent medicine Chūshōtō 中將湯 (Chūshō’s Decoction) was marketed to Chinese women through advertisements emphasizing its ability to promote fertility. This illustrates the complex interplay of cultural influence and commercialization in the medical marketplace.

54. What does the Golden Mirror (Yuzuan yizong jinjian 御纂醫宗金鑑, 1742) include a series of illustrations of smallpox eruptions (douzhen 痘疹) that borrow heavily from?

  • A. The popular visual genre of baizi tu 百子圖 (‘pictures of a hundred boys’)
  • B. Traditional Chinese paintings of Daoist immortals
  • C. Illustrations from Western medical textbooks
  • D. The imagery of Tibetan Buddhist tantric texts

Answer: A. The popular visual genre of baizi tu 百子圖 (‘pictures of a hundred boys’)

The Golden Mirror (Yuzuan yizong jinjian 御纂醫宗金鑑, 1742) includes a series of illustrations of smallpox eruptions (douzhen 痘疹) that borrow heavily from the popular visual genre of baizi tu 百子圖 (‘pictures of a hundred boys’). This reflects the influence of popular culture on medical imagery and the use of visual metaphors to convey medical knowledge.

55. What do the Lukhang murals feature a variety of yogic exercises (’khrul ’khor) from?

  • A. The 10th-century Japanese compilation of Chinese medical texts Ishimpō 醫心方
  • B. The 18th-century medical text Yuzuan yizong jinjian 御纂醫宗金鑑
  • C. Pema Lingpa’s treasure text ‘Compendium of Enlightened Spontaneity’ (Rdzogs chen kun bzang dgongs’dus)
  • D. The Dunhuang Manuscripts

Answer: C. Pema Lingpa’s treasure text ‘Compendium of Enlightened Spontaneity’ (Rdzogs chen kun bzang dgongs’dus)

The Lukhang murals feature a variety of yogic exercises (’khrul ’khor) from Pema Lingpa’s treasure text ‘Compendium of Enlightened Spontaneity’ (Rdzogs chen kun bzang dgongs’dus). One of the most prominent illustrations shows a figure performing the ‘vajra posture’ (rdo rje’i ‘dug stang). This connection between visual art and sacred texts highlights the importance of visual representation in Tibetan Buddhist practices.

56. What did the Nationalist government in the early 20th century sponsor a series of ‘Healthy Baby Contests’ (jiankang ertong jingsai 健康兒童競賽) to promote?

  • A. The use of traditional Chinese medicine for child health
  • B. Public health and eugenics
  • C. The adoption of Western medical practices for infant care
  • D. The importance of breastfeeding

Answer: B. Public health and eugenics

In the early 20th century, the Nationalist government sponsored a series of ‘Healthy Baby Contests’ (jiankang ertong jingsai 健康兒童競賽) to promote public health and eugenics. These contests emphasized the importance of physical appearance and the need to create a healthy, strong future generation. This reflects the complex interplay of social, political, and medical ideologies in shaping public health initiatives.

57. What does the earliest known complete diagram of the human body identified as ‘Mingtang’ 明堂 (Illuminated Hall or Bright Hall) depict?

  • A. The flow of Qi through the body’s channels
  • B. The location of acupuncture points
  • C. The internal organs and their functions
  • D. The connection between the body and the cosmos

Answer: D. The connection between the body and the cosmos

The earliest known complete diagram of the human body identified as ‘Mingtang’ 明堂 (Illuminated Hall or Bright Hall) depicts the connection between the body and the cosmos. It reflects the holistic approach of Chinese medicine, which emphasizes the interconnectedness of the individual with the surrounding environment and the universe.

58. What is the name of the earliest extant diagram of the vulva found among the Mawangdui 馬王堆 medical manuscripts?

  • A. The “Mingtang” diagram
  • B. The “Wu Xing” diagram
  • C. The “Taiji” diagram
  • D. The “Vulva” diagram

Answer: D. The “Vulva” diagram

The earliest extant diagram of the vulva found among the Mawangdui 馬王堆 medical manuscripts is often referred to as the “Vulva” diagram. It provides a rare and valuable glimpse into early Chinese understanding of female anatomy.

59. What is the name of the Japanese patent medicine Chūshōtō 中將湯 (Chūshō’s Decoction) that was marketed to Chinese women in the late 19th century?

  • A. “The Golden Mirror”
  • B. “The Medicine Buddha”
  • C. “Chūshō’s Decoction”
  • D. “The Four Tantras”

Answer: C. “Chūshō’s Decoction”

The Japanese patent medicine Chūshōtō 中將湯 (Chūshō’s Decoction) was marketed to Chinese women in the late 19th century. It illustrates the global reach of commercialized medicine and the complex interplay of cultural influences on the healthcare industry.

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