Concerning Animals and Other Matters Informative Summary


Edward Hamilton Aitken, affectionately known as “Eha,” was a dedicated naturalist and Anglo-Indian who spent his life observing and writing about the diverse animal kingdom of India. In “Concerning Animals and Other Matters,” he shares his observations and insights on a wide range of creatures, from birds and beasts to snakes and insects. With a sharp wit and a keen eye for detail, Eha explores the intricate adaptations of animals, their physical features, behaviors, and the ways in which they interact with their surroundings. He examines the evolution of animal forms, highlighting the fascinating modifications and adaptations that have allowed different species to thrive in their unique environments. Eha’s writing is engaging and insightful, prompting readers to think deeply about the natural world and the interconnectedness of all living things.

Key Findings:

  • Eha’s observations challenge traditional notions of animal evolution, suggesting that animals develop in the direction of their tendencies and desires.
  • The essay “Feet and Hands” highlights the fascinating versatility of the foot as a versatile tool for animals, tracing its evolution from simple limbs to specialized appendages like wings, flippers, and hands.
  • The essay “Bills of Birds” explores the diverse adaptations of bird beaks, showing how different beak shapes and sizes have evolved to suit specific diets and foraging techniques.
  • The essay “Tails” examines the various functions of tails in different animals, from simple balance aids to complex communication tools and weapons.
  • Eha’s insights on the senses of animals, particularly the nose and ears, reveal the deep connection between physical features and emotional expression.
  • The essays “Snakes” and “Cures for Snakebite” challenge common misconceptions about snakes and their venom, advocating for a more nuanced understanding of these often-feared creatures.
  • The essay “Domestic Animals” explores the process of domestication, highlighting the unique traits and characteristics that have made certain species amenable to human control.
  • Eha’s essay “Indian Poverty” addresses the complex issue of poverty in India, challenging simplistic notions and emphasizing the importance of understanding the cultural and historical context.
  • The essays “The Cobra Bungalow” and “The Panther I Did Not Shoot” offer captivating anecdotes and insights into the encounters between humans and wildlife in India.
  • Eha’s writing reflects his deep appreciation for the natural world, his keen sense of observation, and his thoughtful reflection on the interconnectedness of all living things.


  • Evolutionary Adaptation: The text highlights how animals adapt to their environment through gradual changes in their physical features and behaviors. The examples of bird beaks, animal feet, and tails demonstrate the intricate ways in which animals have evolved to suit their unique needs.
  • Animal Intelligence and Expression: Eha’s detailed observations of animal behavior, particularly their expressions through their senses, reveal a depth of intelligence and emotion that transcends simplistic notions of “dumb animals.” The examples of a cat watching a mouse, the ears of deer and rabbits, and the nose of the orang-outang demonstrate the complex ways in which animals communicate and express their emotions.
  • The Importance of Observation: Eha’s essays emphasize the value of close and careful observation of the natural world. By paying attention to seemingly insignificant details, Eha uncovers profound truths about animal behavior and the interconnectedness of life.
  • Respect for All Creatures: Eha’s writing promotes a compassionate and respectful attitude towards all living creatures. He challenges common misconceptions and prejudices, advocating for a deeper understanding and appreciation of the diverse animal kingdom.

Historical Context:

“Concerning Animals and Other Matters” was written in 1914, a time of significant social and political change in India. The British Empire was at its peak, but the seeds of discontent were already being sown. The text provides a glimpse into the complex relationship between British rule and the indigenous population of India, reflecting the social, cultural, and religious dynamics of the time. Eha’s observations on the roles of the Brahmin and the Purbhoo in society, as well as his insights into the impact of British influence on Indian culture, offer a valuable historical perspective on this pivotal period.


  • There are 264 species of snakes known to naturalists in India, including 27 sea-serpents.
  • Only 44 out of the 237 non-sea snake species in India are considered venomous.
  • The common brown rat is a domestic animal in India, having become accustomed to living in close proximity to humans.
  • The barn owl is a highly effective predator of rats and mice and plays a vital role in controlling rodent populations.
  • The betel nut (areca nut) is an indispensable part of life for many Hindus, used for its various medicinal and social purposes.
  • The coconut tree is a symbol of fertility and prosperity in India, providing a wide range of materials and products for daily life.
  • The Holi festival, a Hindu celebration of color and merriment, is associated with the god Krishna, known for his playful and amorous nature.
  • The Purbhoo caste, often mistaken for Brahmins, plays a significant role in the administration of British India.
  • The standard of living among Hindu peasants is steadily improving, despite ongoing challenges of poverty and inequality.
  • Many English words, such as “curry,” “bangle,” and “polo,” have their origins in the Indian subcontinent.


  • India has a landmass of 943,903 square miles.
  • There are approximately 300 million people in India who use the areca nut (betel nut).
  • About 22,000 Indians have settled in Fiji Islands after working as indentured coolies.
  • A pair of barn owls can consume a bushel of mice in 16 months.
  • The population of India is over 300 million.


  • Chota hazree: A light breakfast, typically served in the early morning.
  • Tamasha: A show or performance, especially one that is entertaining or exciting.
  • Bundobust: The arrangement or management of something.
  • Griffin: A mythical creature with the body of a lion and the head of an eagle, often used as a symbol of British power in India.
  • Chitnis: A chief secretary in a British Indian administrative office.
  • Sahib: A European gentleman, often used by Indians in a respectful address.
  • Ryot: A peasant farmer in India.
  • Muchwa: A type of native sailing boat used in India.
  • Goolal: A brightly colored powder used in the Holi festival.
  • Pan supari: A mixture of betel nut, betel leaf, lime, and spices that is chewed for its stimulating and social effects.
  • Jaolee: A type of palm leaf mat used for roofing in India.
  • Toddy: An alcoholic beverage made from the sap of palm trees, especially coconut palms.


  • Eha describes the “mango trick” performed by snake-charmers, where a mango tree is seemingly made to grow and bear fruit in a matter of minutes.
  • He details the story of Beharilal, a moneylender who finds himself in a precarious situation after killing the guardian cobra of his shrine.
  • The story of the panther that killed a cow in a coastal village illustrates the unpredictable nature of wildlife and the complex interactions between humans and animals in India.
  • Eha uses the example of the Purbhoo caste to illustrate the intricate social and political dynamics of British India.
  • He discusses the role of the betel nut in Hindu social life and its importance in ceremonial rituals and everyday interactions.
  • The Holi festival, celebrated in a fishing village on the west coast of India, provides a vivid illustration of Hindu customs and cultural practices.


Through his detailed observations and insightful reflections, Eha reveals the fascinating world of animals and the intricate web of life that exists in India. His essays challenge simplistic notions about animals and their behavior, promoting a deeper appreciation for the natural world. Eha’s writing offers valuable insights into the cultural and historical context of India in the early 20th century, highlighting the complex relationship between the British Empire and the indigenous population. His work serves as a reminder of the importance of understanding and respecting all living creatures and the need to approach the natural world with curiosity and humility. By drawing parallels between human and animal behavior, Eha invites us to consider our own nature and the ways in which we interact with the world around us.

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