Darwin, and After Darwin, Volume 1 Informative Summary


This book, originally published in 1910, is a systematic exposition of Darwin’s theory of evolution. It aims to clarify the theory and its supporting evidence for a general audience, while still maintaining a critical and analytical approach. Romanes breaks down the Darwinian theory into two parts: the fact of evolution and the manner of it, or how evolution takes place. He carefully distinguishes between established scientific principles and speculative deductions. This volume focuses on the theory of evolution as Darwin presented it, while a subsequent volume delves into post-Darwinian debates surrounding heredity, utility, and isolation.

The book examines a range of evidence in support of Darwin’s theory, including the argument from classification, the argument from morphology, and the argument from embryology. It also discusses the concept of rudimentary structures, or vestigial characters, as evidence for evolutionary adaptation. Through these various lines of evidence, Romanes presents a compelling case for the validity of Darwinian evolution.

Key findings:

  • Classification: Natural classification of plants and animals reflects genetic relationships, with groups arranged in a tree-like structure based on degrees of anatomical resemblance.
  • Morphology: Adaptive modifications of structure (e.g. whale flippers, bat wings) demonstrate the process of evolution, as organisms adapt to their environments. Rudimentary structures (e.g. human tailbone, appendix) provide evidence of ancestral traits that have become obsolete.
  • Embryology: The embryonic development of higher organisms recapitulates the evolutionary history of their ancestral species. Similarities in embryonic stages between higher and lower organisms reveal common ancestry and shared developmental plans.


  • Evolutionary Adaptation: Organisms adapt to their environments by gradually modifying their structures over generations. These modifications can be seen in the development of specialized organs, such as whale flippers, bat wings, and bird beaks.
  • Rudimentary Structures: Vestigial characters are remnants of structures that were functional in ancestral species but have become obsolete. Their presence provides evidence for evolutionary descent.
  • Embryonic Development: The embryonic development of an individual organism can be viewed as a condensed recapitulation of its evolutionary history. This recapitulation provides a powerful line of evidence for the fact of evolution.
  • Classification and Genetic Relationships: The natural classification of organisms reflects their genetic relationships, with organisms grouped according to shared anatomical features that indicate common ancestry.

Historical context:

This text was written in the late 19th century, a time when Darwin’s theory of evolution was still being debated and scrutinized. The book reflects the scientific understanding of evolution at that time, which was beginning to be shaped by new discoveries in the fields of embryology and morphology.


  1. Porpoises and whales: Their ancestors were terrestrial quadrupeds that gradually became aquatic.
  2. Seals: Have rudimentary hind legs, showing the initial stages of aquatic adaptation.
  3. Whale anatomy: Retain the bones of a mammalian skull and forelimb, despite their aquatic adaptations.
  4. Bats: Have elongated fingers for flight, demonstrating adaptive modification of the forelimb.
  5. Birds: Have modified forelimbs for flight, with short fingers and a wing formed primarily from the shoulder and fore-arm.
  6. Flying reptiles: Some extinct species had elongated fifth fingers and a membrane for flight.
  7. Serpents: Have no vestiges of limbs, illustrating complete loss of a structure through inutility.
  8. Dinornis: An extinct bird with greatly reduced wings, demonstrating the process of wing loss through adaptation to a flightless lifestyle.
  9. Hermit crabs: Have adapted their posterior body parts to live in mollusk shells, with modified appendages for clasping and a spiral tail for fitting the shell.
  10. Birgus latro: A land-dwelling crab that resembles a hermit crab in structure, suggesting an evolutionary transition from a hermit crab lifestyle.
  11. Whales: Have rudimentary teeth that never erupt and vestigial organs that were functional in terrestrial ancestors.
  12. Python: Possesses tiny hind limb rudiments, illustrating the variability of vestigial structures within a group.
  13. Apteryx: A flightless bird with greatly reduced wings, adapted to a life without predators.
  14. Logger-headed duck: Has reduced wings but its young can fly, demonstrating the evolutionary loss of flight in adults.
  15. Madeira beetles: Nearly half of the 500-600 species on the island are wingless, a likely result of adaptation to a stormy environment.
  16. Kerguelen Island insects: All species are flightless, indicating adaptation to a harsh and windy environment.
  17. Cave animals: Animals living in dark caves are often blind, with vestigial eyes or eye stalks, demonstrating the loss of vision through disuse.
  18. Mammoth cave fish: Are closely allied to surface-dwelling species in their respective continents, supporting the theory of evolutionary descent.
  19. Human external ear: Retains vestigial muscles for ear movement, which are functional in quadrupeds.
  20. Human panniculus carnosis: Has remnants of subcutaneous muscle for moving the skin, which is more developed in many mammals.
  21. Human feet: Show an inward deflection at birth, resembling the grasping feet of primates.
  22. Human great toe: Is laterally extensible at birth, approaching the thumb-like character of primate great toes.
  23. Infant grip: Humans have strong grasping power at birth, likely inherited from primate ancestors for clinging to mothers during locomotion.
  24. Human tail: Has a rudimentary tailbone, or coccyx, which is more prominent in embryonic development and represents a vestigial tail.
  25. Human appendix: Is a vestigial organ that was functional in herbivorous ancestors but is now largely useless.
  26. Human ear: The folded helix of the ear suggests an evolutionary origin from a pointed ear like that of some primates.
  27. Human hair: The rudimentary hair covering on most of the human body is a vestigial trait inherited from primate ancestors.
  28. Human hair patterns: Hair direction on the arms and hands of humans resembles that of anthropoid apes.
  29. Human wisdom teeth: Are smaller and more prone to variation than other molars, suggesting a process of degeneration.
  30. Human molar teeth: Have fewer cusps than those of some primates, indicating a potential reduction in their size and complexity.
  31. Human humerus: Occasionally presents a supracondyloid foramen, a vestigial feature found in some primates.
  32. Human tibia: Some ancient human skeletons have a laterally flattened tibia, resembling the tibia of some apes.


  1. Madeira beetles: Nearly half of the 500-600 species on the island are wingless.
  2. Cave animals: All animals in totally dark caves are blind.
  3. Human supracondyloid foramen: Occurs in about 1% of humans, considered a vestigial trait.
  4. Human inter-condyloid foramen: Occurs in 20-30% of ancient and some savage human races, potentially a vestigial feature.
  5. Lanugo: A thick coating of hair that covers the human fetus at about 6 months, shedding before birth.


  1. Homology: Correspondence in structure between organisms, indicating common ancestry.
  2. Analogy: Correspondence in function between organisms, without necessarily indicating common ancestry.
  3. Rudimentary Structures: Vestigial characters, or remnants of structures that were functional in ancestral species.
  4. Fissiparous division: A form of asexual reproduction where a cell divides into two identical daughter cells.
  5. Karyokinesis: A complex process of nuclear division that occurs during cell division in multicellular organisms.
  6. Polar bodies: Minute protoplasmic masses that are extruded from the nucleus of an egg cell during development.
  7. Conjugation: A form of sexual reproduction in some protozoa, where two individuals fuse together.
  8. Encystation: A period of quiescence or dormancy that some protozoa enter into after conjugation.
  9. Spores: Minute particles that are produced by some organisms during reproduction.
  10. Parthenogenesis: A form of reproduction where an egg develops without fertilization.


  1. Whale forelimbs: Modified for swimming, but retain the bones of a mammalian arm.
  2. Bat wings: Elongated fingers for flight, demonstrating adaptive modification of the forelimb.
  3. Flying reptile wing: An extinct species had an elongated fifth finger and a membrane for flight, illustrating the diversity of evolutionary adaptations.
  4. Hermit crab: Has adapted its posterior body parts to live in mollusk shells, showcasing how a specialized lifestyle can drive structural evolution.
  5. Birgus latro: The land-dwelling cocoa-nut crab resembles a hermit crab in structure, suggesting an evolutionary transition from a shell-dwelling lifestyle.
  6. Whale teeth: Unborn whales have rudimentary teeth that never erupt, indicating the loss of teeth through adaptation to a diet of krill.
  7. Python hind limbs: Vestigial hind limbs in snakes provide evidence for the loss of limbs through inutility.
  8. Apteryx wings: Flightless bird with greatly reduced wings, illustrating how adaptation to a flightless environment can lead to the loss of wings.
  9. Logger-headed duck wings: The inability to fly in adult birds, while young birds retain the ability to fly, illustrates the evolutionary loss of a trait in specific stages of development.
  10. Mammoth cave fish: Are blind, lacking functional eyes, showcasing the loss of vision through disuse.


Romanes’ book presents a comprehensive and compelling case for the validity of Darwin’s theory of evolution. Through detailed evidence from classification, morphology, and embryology, he demonstrates how the diversity of life on Earth can be explained by processes of natural adaptation and descent with modification. He highlights the importance of considering both the fact of evolution and the manner in which it occurs, and emphasizes the role of rudimentary structures and embryonic development as key lines of evidence for evolutionary history. While Darwin’s theory faced significant challenges at the time, Romanes’ book provides a clear and accessible explanation for a general audience, solidifying the foundation for future advancements in evolutionary biology.

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