Darwiniana : Essays Volume 2 Informative Summary


This volume, titled “Darwiniana,” represents a collection of essays by Thomas Henry Huxley, a prominent British biologist, who played a pivotal role in popularizing and defending Darwin’s theory of evolution. The essays, spanning from 1859 to 1888, explore various facets of the evolution debate. Huxley’s writings exhibit his strong advocacy for Darwin’s ideas, highlighting the theory’s strength in explaining biological phenomena and its grounding in scientific observation.

The essays showcase Huxley’s own nuanced views on evolution. While he firmly believes in the fact of evolution, he also acknowledges the limitations of the theory of natural selection. Huxley highlights areas of uncertainty, such as the exact causes of variation and the role of inherited acquired characteristics, demonstrating his commitment to ongoing scientific inquiry.

Key Findings:

  • Evolution by Natural Selection: Huxley strongly supports the theory of evolution by natural selection, emphasizing its ability to explain the diversity and complexity of life.
  • Importance of Observation and Experiment: Huxley stresses the importance of rigorous scientific methods, particularly observation and experiment, in understanding the origin and modification of species.
  • Limitations of Natural Selection: Huxley acknowledges the limitations of natural selection as a sole explanatory force, particularly regarding the causes of variation and the sterility of hybrids. He advocates for further research in these areas.
  • Teleology and Morphology: Huxley argues that Darwin’s theory reconciles teleology (purpose) and morphology (form) by demonstrating that seemingly purposeful adaptations arise from a process of natural selection.


  • What is a species? The concept of species is complex and evolving. Huxley explains that while morphological species are defined by distinct structural differences, physiological species are defined by their ability to breed and produce fertile offspring.
  • How do new species arise? Darwin’s theory of natural selection offers a plausible explanation for the origin of species. Huxley outlines the process: organisms vary, some variations are more beneficial for survival, these variations are passed on to offspring, and over time, these variations accumulate, leading to the formation of new species.
  • The Role of Natural Selection: Natural selection is a key driver of evolution. It favors organisms with traits that make them better adapted to their environment, leading to the survival and reproduction of these individuals and the gradual extinction of less adapted organisms.
  • The Importance of the Struggle for Existence: Huxley emphasizes the crucial role of the struggle for existence in natural selection. The competition for resources and the constant pressure of predation act as selective forces, favoring individuals with advantageous traits.
  • The Imperfection of the Geological Record: Huxley highlights the limitations of the fossil record, explaining how geological processes can lead to incomplete or fragmented evidence of past life forms. Despite these limitations, the fossil record provides strong support for the theory of evolution.

Historical Context:

The essays in “Darwiniana” were written against the backdrop of the 19th-century scientific revolution, when the theory of evolution was met with fierce opposition from both religious and scientific communities. Huxley’s essays serve as a powerful defense of Darwin’s ideas and as a testament to the ongoing struggle to reconcile scientific knowledge with traditional beliefs.


  • Protein is a complex compound: Protein is a complex compound of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, found only in living organisms and essential for supporting animal life.
  • The horse is not unique: The horse shares a common structural plan with other vertebrates, such as dogs, lemurs, apes, and humans, indicating a shared evolutionary history.
  • The Porpoise has the same skeletal elements as the horse: Despite their different appearances and modes of locomotion, the porpoise’s flippers share fundamental skeletal elements with the horse’s legs, highlighting common ancestry.
  • There are five major plans of animal organization: The diversity of the animal kingdom can be broadly categorized into five major plans of organization, suggesting a common root from which different groups have evolved.
  • The earth’s crust is constantly moving: The earth’s surface is not static, but rather undergoes slow, gradual, and sometimes dramatic shifts, impacting the deposition and preservation of geological records.
  • Fossils provide evidence of past life: Fossils, preserved in sedimentary rocks, offer irrefutable evidence of past life forms, allowing scientists to reconstruct the history of life on Earth.
  • The geological record is incomplete: Geological processes lead to the destruction and loss of geological and fossil records, making the available data a fragmented and incomplete representation of Earth’s history.
  • There are many extinct orders of reptiles: Half of the reptilian orders are now extinct, highlighting the vast changes in life forms over geological time.
  • The geographical distribution of species is not random: The distribution of species is influenced by factors such as climate, station (habitat), and food availability.
  • The struggle for existence is a universal phenomenon: Limited resources and competition for survival are fundamental to life, with organisms constantly vying for space, food, and mates.
  • Variations occur naturally: Organisms vary in their characteristics, not only in domesticated breeds but also in wild populations, creating the raw material for natural selection.
  • Mutations can be inherited: Variations, even those considered monstrosities, can be inherited and passed on to offspring, potentially leading to the establishment of new traits in a population.
  • Cross-fertilization is advantageous: Cross-fertilization between different individuals of a species increases genetic diversity and promotes vigor and fertility in offspring.
  • Natural selection acts as a selective breeder: The conditions of existence, such as climate, habitat, and food availability, act as selective forces, favoring individuals with traits that enhance their survival and reproduction.
  • Adaptive characteristics are key to survival: Species survive because they possess traits that adapt them to their environment, allowing them to outcompete rivals and escape predation.
  • The earth’s history is a continual change: The history of life on Earth is a long and continuous process of change, with new species arising and others becoming extinct over time.
  • The fossil record provides evidence for evolution: The fossil record, despite its limitations, offers strong support for the theory of evolution, showing a gradual transition of life forms over time.
  • Rudimentary organs provide evidence for evolution: Rudimentary organs, non-functional structures present in some organisms, but fully developed in their ancestors, support the idea of descent with modification.
  • There is no absolute limit to variation: The process of selective breeding, both natural and artificial, can lead to significant changes in the structure and function of organisms, with no clear limit on the extent of these changes.
  • Humanity is part of the evolutionary process: Darwin’s theory applies to humans as much as to other organisms, indicating that our species has evolved from a common ancestor with apes and other mammals.
  • The difference between humans and animals is not simply structural: The intellectual and moral gap between humans and other animals is immense, and it likely arises from complex functional differences rather than solely from structural variations.


  • Over 120 orders of animals: There are approximately 120 orders of animals, only ten or a dozen of which are completely extinct.
  • 30,000-40,000 species of fossils: Paleontologists have discovered over 30,000 to 40,000 species of fossils, providing a glimpse into the history of life.
  • 70,000 feet of sedimentary rock: The total thickness of the stratified rocks, the geological record, is estimated to be around 70,000 feet, representing a vast span of time.
  • Three-fifths of the earth is covered by water: Oceans cover three-fifths of the Earth’s surface, making access to a large portion of the geological record inaccessible.
  • Only 1/10,000 of the Earth’s surface examined: Only a tiny fraction of the Earth’s surface has been adequately studied by geologists, underscoring the incompleteness of our knowledge.
  • Fifty seeds per plant: Huxley’s hypothetical plant produces 50 seeds per year, demonstrating the potential for exponential growth in a population.
  • One square foot of space per plant: Each plant in Huxley’s hypothetical world requires one square foot of space for survival, highlighting the competitive pressure for resources.
  • Black pigs in Florida: The black pig population in Florida is maintained by the Paint Root, which kills white pigs that consume it. This is an example of natural selection by environmental factors.


  • Atavism: The tendency for an organism to inherit characteristics from its ancestors.
  • Conditions of Existence: The environmental factors, both physical and biological, that influence the survival and reproduction of organisms.
  • Epigenesis: The theory that the development of an organism occurs through a gradual series of changes, with new parts arising successively.
  • Evolution: The process of gradual change in living organisms over time, leading to the development of new species.
  • Extinct: A species or group of organisms that no longer exists.
  • Fossil: The preserved remains or traces of a once-living organism.
  • Hybridism: The phenomenon of sterility or reduced fertility in the offspring of two different species.
  • Morphology: The study of the form and structure of living organisms.
  • Natural Selection: The process by which organisms with traits better suited to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce, passing these advantageous traits to their offspring.
  • Species: A group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring, typically defined by distinct morphological characteristics.
  • Spontaneous Generation: The theory that living organisms can arise from non-living matter. This theory has been largely debunked by scientific evidence.
  • Struggle for Existence: The competition for resources, mates, and survival among individuals of the same species or different species.
  • Variation: The differences in characteristics that occur among individuals of the same species.


  • Gratio Kelleia’s six-fingered family: The inheritance of a six-fingered trait in Gratio Kelleia’s family demonstrates the persistence of variation and the potential for its accumulation.
  • Ancon sheep: The selective breeding of Ancon sheep for their short legs shows the power of artificial selection in perpetuating desirable traits.
  • Domesticated pigeons: The diverse varieties of domesticated pigeons, such as the Carrier, Pouter, Fantail, and Tumbler, demonstrate the vast extent to which selection can modify a species.
  • Black pigs in Florida: The survival of only black pigs in Florida due to the toxic effects of the Paint Root on white pigs illustrates natural selection by environmental factors.
  • Humble bees and cats: The complex interactions between humble bees, field mice, and cats demonstrate the indirect and interconnected nature of the struggle for existence.
  • The horse’s rudimentary splint bones: The presence of splint bones in the horse’s legs, representing remnants of toes present in its ancestors, provides evidence for evolution.
  • Whalebone whales: The whalebone whale’s lack of teeth, but the presence of teeth in its embryos, highlights the persistence of ancestral features in descendants.
  • Fossil records of successive faunas and floras: The consistent presence of closely related species in successive geological epochs supports the idea of gradual change over time.


This volume of essays by Thomas Henry Huxley provides a compelling and insightful look into the evolution debate in the late 19th century. Huxley presents a strong case for Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection, emphasizing its ability to explain a wide range of biological phenomena. He acknowledges the theory’s limitations, particularly regarding the complete explanation of hybrid sterility, but argues that further research could fill these gaps.

While the “Origin of Species” may not have offered a complete explanation of the origin of life, it revolutionized our understanding of how life has diversified and adapted over time. Huxley’s essays remind us that scientific inquiry is a continuous process, constantly evolving and challenging our assumptions. The legacy of Darwin and Huxley continues to inspire generations of scientists, urging them to approach the world with curiosity, rigor, and a willingness to challenge established knowledge.

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