Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion (2003) Informative Summary


“Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion” is a philosophical work by David Hume that presents a thought-provoking exploration of the concept of God. The dialogue unfolds through the conversations of three distinct characters: Philo, Cleanthes, and Demea. Philo represents skepticism, questioning the ability of human reason to comprehend the Divine. Cleanthes, on the other hand, advocates for a reasoned approach to natural religion, drawing evidence from the order and design observed in the universe. Demea embodies a more traditional, mystical view, emphasizing the incomprehensibility of the Divine and the need for faith.

The dialogue grapples with several fundamental questions about God and the nature of existence. One central theme is the problem of evil: how can a benevolent God allow suffering and injustice in the world? Philo argues that the existence of evil undermines the traditional arguments for God’s goodness and wisdom. Cleanthes attempts to reconcile this apparent contradiction by suggesting that God may have a larger plan that we cannot fully understand. Demea, however, maintains that the Divine is ultimately beyond human comprehension, and we must accept the existence of evil as a mystery.

Key Findings:

  • Human reason has limitations: Philo highlights the inherent limitations of human reason, especially when dealing with complex philosophical and theological questions.
  • The problem of evil: The existence of suffering and injustice in the world poses a significant challenge to traditional arguments for a benevolent God.
  • The nature of God is incomprehensible: Demea argues that God is ultimately beyond human understanding and comprehension.
  • Multiple perspectives on religion: The dialogue showcases diverse philosophical viewpoints on the nature of God and religion, prompting readers to consider their own beliefs.


  • David Hume wrote “Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion”: Hume, a Scottish philosopher and historian, composed this work as a dialogue between three characters.
  • The dialogue explores the nature of God and the existence of evil: The characters grapple with complex questions about God’s attributes, His purpose in creating the universe, and the presence of suffering.
  • Philo represents skepticism: Philo doubts the ability of human reason to understand the Divine, questioning the traditional arguments for God’s existence.
  • Cleanthes promotes a reasoned approach to natural religion: Cleanthes argues for the existence of God based on the order and design observed in the universe.
  • Demea embodies a traditional, mystical view: Demea emphasizes the incomprehensibility of God and the need for faith.
  • The dialogue is set in the library of Cleanthes: The setting underscores the intellectual nature of the conversations and emphasizes the role of reason in exploring religious questions.
  • The characters are engaged in a discussion about natural religion: They explore the concept of God based on the natural world and human reason, not on revealed religion.
  • The book was published in 1779, posthumously: Hume died in 1776, and his work was published after his death by his friend, David Stewart.
  • The dialogue was written in English: Hume was a prominent figure in the Scottish Enlightenment, which was characterized by a focus on reason and empiricism.
  • “Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion” is considered a significant work in the history of philosophical theology: It continues to be studied and debated by theologians and philosophers.
  • The argument from design is a central theme in the dialogue: Cleanthes uses the order and complexity of the universe as evidence for God’s existence and intelligence.
  • The problem of evil is a significant obstacle to the argument from design: Philo points out that if God is both powerful and benevolent, why does He allow suffering and injustice?
  • Philo’s skeptical approach is rooted in the limitations of human reason: He argues that we cannot fully comprehend the Divine and should therefore be cautious in our theological pronouncements.
  • Cleanthes’s reasoned approach is based on analogy and observation: He infers God’s existence and attributes by comparing the universe to human creations.
  • Demea’s mystical approach emphasizes the ineffability of God: He believes that true worship involves humility and silence before the Divine.
  • The book is structured as a dialogue: This format allows for the exploration of multiple viewpoints and encourages readers to engage in critical thinking.
  • The dialogue highlights the tension between reason and faith: It explores the role of both in understanding religious questions and the potential conflicts between them.
  • The book has been influential in shaping philosophical discussions about religion and theology: Its enduring relevance is a testament to the depth and complexity of the issues it raises.


  • 600 different muscles: Galen, an ancient Greek physician, estimated that the human body has over 600 different muscles.
  • 10 different circumstances: Galen believed that each muscle required at least 10 different adjustments to function properly.
  • 6000 several views and intentions: This is Galen’s estimate for the number of separate designs and purposes in the human body, based on the number of muscles and their intricate structure.
  • 284 bones: Galen calculated that the human skeleton consists of 284 bones, each with its own complex structure and purpose.
  • 40 distinct purposes: This is Galen’s estimate for the number of distinct functions and designs involved in the structure of each bone.
  • Over a thousand years before Columbus: This refers to the timeline of events suggesting the relative youth of the world, as evident from the relatively recent discovery of new continents and species.


  • Anthropomorphism: The attribution of human characteristics or qualities to a god or gods.
  • Cosmogony: A theory or story about the origin of the universe.
  • Design Argument: The argument that the existence of order and complexity in the universe points to an intelligent designer, usually identified as God.
  • Epicureanism: A philosophy founded by Epicurus, which emphasizes pleasure as the ultimate good and the avoidance of pain.
  • Mysticism: A belief that spiritual realities can be grasped through direct experience and intuition rather than through reason or logic.
  • Natural Religion: Belief in a God or gods based on reason and observation of the natural world, rather than on revealed religion.
  • Scepticism: A philosophical approach that questions the possibility of certain knowledge and emphasizes the limitations of human reason.
  • Theism: Belief in the existence of a God or gods.
  • Theogony: A genealogy or account of the origin and descent of the gods.


  • The example of the house: Philo uses the analogy of a poorly designed house to illustrate how the existence of evil in the world would suggest a flawed or incompetent creator.
  • The example of the cherry tree: Cleanthes uses the example of the cherry tree to argue against the eternity of the world, suggesting that it would have been discovered and cultivated much earlier if the world had existed for an infinite amount of time.
  • The example of the spider: Philo presents the Brahmin belief that the world was spun from the bowels of an infinite spider to illustrate how different cultures might develop very different systems of cosmogony based on their own unique experiences and observations.
  • The example of Galen’s anatomy: Cleanthes uses Galen’s anatomical discoveries as evidence for design and intelligence in the universe.
  • The example of Charles V: Demea cites the example of Charles V’s resignation as emperor as evidence for the universality of human misery, even among those who have achieved great power and wealth.
  • The example of Cicero’s complaints: Demea references Cicero’s writings to illustrate how even highly successful and intelligent individuals can experience a profound sense of the ills and frustrations of life.
  • The example of the ocean: Demea uses the image of a ship foundering in the ocean as a metaphor for the unpredictable and often devastating nature of life.
  • The example of Caligula and Caesar: Cleanthes suggests that small changes in the course of events could have dramatically altered the course of history, potentially leading to a much happier and more prosperous world.
  • The example of the wind: Cleanthes uses the example of wind to illustrate how even beneficial natural phenomena can become destructive when they exceed their proper bounds.
  • The example of the Manichaean system: Philo presents the Manichaean dualistic system, which posits a struggle between good and evil, as a plausible but ultimately inadequate explanation for the existence of evil in the universe.

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