Evolution: An Investigation and a Critique Informative Summary


This book, published in 1921, presents a detailed critique of Darwin’s theory of evolution, arguing it is not supported by scientific evidence. The author, Theodore Graebner, a theologian, examines the theory’s claims from various angles, including geology, biology, and religion. He focuses on the theory’s inability to explain the origin of matter, force, life, and the unique characteristics of humans, such as consciousness, language, and a moral nature. Graebner also argues that evolution is incompatible with Christian beliefs about creation, the fall of man, redemption, miracles, and revelation.

Graebner systematically breaks down the supposed evidence for evolution, including the fossil record, the argument from morphology, and the argument from embryology. He contends that the fossil record does not demonstrate a clear progression from simple to complex forms, but rather shows a wide variety of species appearing suddenly. He also points out that the similarities in structure between different species, often cited as evidence of common ancestry, can be explained by a common designer. Additionally, he argues that embryonic development does not necessarily imply evolutionary relationships, as similar developmental stages can arise through different mechanisms.

Key Findings:

  • Evolution is a theory, not a science: Evolution cannot be empirically tested and relies on assumptions about the past.
  • Evolution fails to explain origins: The theory does not explain the origin of matter, force, life, or the complex differences between plant and animal life.
  • Evolution contradicts Christian beliefs: The theory challenges the biblical account of creation and the existence of a personal God, as well as the nature of the human soul and the necessity of redemption.


  • The nature of science: Graebner emphasizes that scientific theories must be based on evidence and must be falsifiable.
  • The limits of scientific explanation: Evolution cannot provide a complete explanation for the origin and diversity of life, and it leaves some fundamental questions unanswered.
  • The value of alternative perspectives: Graebner argues that religious perspectives, like those found in Christianity, offer valuable insights into the nature of reality.

Historical Context:

Graebner wrote his critique in 1921, a time when evolutionary theory was gaining significant acceptance in scientific circles. This book reflects the ongoing debate between science and religion in the early 20th century, and it highlights the concerns of many religious thinkers about the implications of evolutionary theory for their faith.


  1. Evolution is a theory, not a science: It cannot be proven through observation or experimentation.
  2. Evolution cannot explain the origin of matter and force: The theory assumes these exist but doesn’t provide a mechanism for their origin.
  3. The Nebular Hypothesis is flawed: It cannot explain the origin of motion, the formation of solid bodies from gases, or the difference in the movement of satellites around various planets.
  4. Spontaneous generation has been disproven: Life only comes from life; there is no scientific evidence that life arose from non-life.
  5. Protoplasm is incredibly complex: It cannot be simply explained as a primordial substance, but exhibits vast diversity among different organisms.
  6. There are biological barriers between major groups of organisms: These barriers are difficult to explain through evolution, such as the difference between plants and animals, vertebrates and invertebrates, and mammals and other vertebrates.
  7. The human brain is structurally perfect: It is unique in its capacity for language, progress, and culture, distinguishing humans from all other animals.
  8. The human mind possesses faculties that cannot be explained by material forces: These include intellect, reason, imagination, and a moral nature.
  9. The fossil record does not support a clear progression from simple to complex forms: It shows a wide variety of species appearing suddenly.
  10. Similarities in structure between species can be explained by a common designer: This alternative to common ancestry is consistent with the existence of a God.
  11. Embryonic development does not necessarily imply evolutionary relationships: Similar developmental stages can arise through different mechanisms.
  12. The “missing link” has not been found: There is no conclusive fossil evidence of a direct evolutionary link between humans and apes.
  13. Evolutionary theory undermines the foundations of Christian belief: It challenges the authority of the Bible, the existence of a personal God, the nature of the human soul, and the necessity of redemption.
  14. Theistic evolution does not address the fundamental issues with the theory: It merely adds God to a flawed framework, without providing a convincing explanation for the origins of life and diversity.
  15. The doctrine of spontaneous generation was disproven by experiments: Italian naturalist Francesco Redi demonstrated that flies were necessary for the development of maggots in meat.
  16. Louis Pasteur’s experiments showed that sterilized water does not produce life: This confirmed that life only arises from pre-existing life.
  17. Alfred Russel Wallace, a co-discoverer of the theory of evolution, acknowledged the inability to explain the origin of protoplasm: He recognized that new powers were needed to explain the properties of life.
  18. Bathybius, a supposed example of primordial protoplasm, turned out to be a chemical precipitate: It was a scientific hoax.
  19. Protoplasm, the basic substance of life, exhibits incredible diversity: It varies in consistency, shape, structure, and function, defying simple explanations of origin.
  20. Every species produces its own kind: This fundamental biological principle contradicts the idea of a single, original protoplasm evolving into all living forms.


  1. Darwin claimed that species tend to increase in number in a geometric progression: This is a foundational idea in his theory of natural selection.
  2. Wallace states that every year, on average, as many organisms die as are born: This underscores the intense struggle for existence, a key component of natural selection.
  3. The “Challenger” expedition failed to find Bathybius in the ocean: This exposed the hoax of this supposed primordial protoplasm.
  4. There are thousands of different types of protoplasm: This highlights the vast diversity and complexity of life.
  5. The human brain is structurally perfect, even in the lowest humans: This indicates that it is a fundamental characteristic of humanity, not a product of evolutionary development.


  1. Evolution: Continuous progressive change according to certain laws and by means of resident forces.
  2. Organic evolution: Evolution as it relates to living forms (plant and animal life).
  3. Cosmic evolution: Evolution as it relates to the development of the universe.
  4. Natural selection: The process by which organisms best suited to their environment survive and reproduce.
  5. Survival of the fittest: A phrase popularized by Herbert Spencer to describe the outcome of natural selection.
  6. Palaeontology: The study of fossils.
  7. Morphology: The study of the form and structure of organisms.
  8. Embryology: The study of the development of embryos.
  9. Vertebrates: Animals with a backbone.
  10. Invertebrates: Animals without a backbone.


  1. The dipper bird: Darwin used this example to illustrate how natural selection could lead to the development of specialized traits, such as the ability to dive underwater.
  2. Bathybius: The supposed primordial protoplasm, discovered and later proven to be a hoax.
  3. The fossil record: Graebner argues that the fossil record does not support a gradual progression from simple to complex forms.
  4. The human brain: Its perfect structure and unique capabilities are presented as evidence against evolutionary explanations for human origins.
  5. The human mind: Its capacity for reason, imagination, and morality is seen as evidence of a non-material element in human nature.
  6. The “missing link”: The lack of conclusive fossil evidence for a direct evolutionary link between humans and apes.
  7. The fall of man: The biblical account of human sin and its consequences is presented as evidence against the idea of human evolution.
  8. Redemption: The Christian doctrine of salvation is seen as a necessary consequence of the fall of man, and therefore incompatible with the theory of evolution.
  9. Miracles: These are events that defy the laws of nature and are seen as evidence of God’s intervention.
  10. Revelation: The Bible is considered a divine revelation, offering guidance on the nature of reality and human purpose.


Theodore Graebner’s book presents a strong case against the theory of evolution. He argues that the theory fails to explain fundamental origins, contradicts scientific observations, and is incompatible with Christian beliefs. His critique highlights the importance of evaluating scientific theories critically, considering their limitations, and acknowledging the value of alternative perspectives. While the debate between science and religion continues, Graebner’s work serves as a reminder of the need to approach these complex issues with intellectual honesty and humility.

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