Evolution: An Investigation and a Critique Trivia Questions and Answers

What book by Theodore Graebner critiques Darwin’s theory of evolution?

  • The Descent of Man
  • The Origin of Species
  • Evolution: An Investigation and a Critique
  • On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres

Correct Answer: Evolution: An Investigation and a Critique Correct Answer Explanation: This book, published in 1921, presents a detailed critique of Darwin’s theory of evolution.

What year was Evolution: An Investigation and a Critique published?

  • 1905
  • 1915
  • 1921
  • 1931

Correct Answer: 1921 Correct Answer Explanation: This book, published in 1921, was written during a time when Darwin’s theory was gaining acceptance.

What is one of the main arguments made in Graebner’s book?

  • Darwin’s theory is well-supported by scientific evidence.
  • Darwin’s theory aligns perfectly with Christian beliefs.
  • Darwin’s theory fails to explain the origin of life.
  • Darwin’s theory is the only plausible explanation for the diversity of life on Earth.

Correct Answer: Darwin’s theory fails to explain the origin of life. Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner argues that evolution does not explain the origin of matter, force, life, or the complex differences between plant and animal life.

What does Graebner say about the fossil record?

  • It shows a clear progression from simple to complex forms, supporting Darwin’s theory.
  • It shows a wide variety of species appearing suddenly, contradicting Darwin’s theory.
  • It is incomplete and cannot be used to support or refute Darwin’s theory.
  • It is a strong piece of evidence in favor of Darwin’s theory.

Correct Answer: It shows a wide variety of species appearing suddenly, contradicting Darwin’s theory. Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner contends that the fossil record does not demonstrate a clear progression from simple to complex forms, but rather shows a wide variety of species appearing suddenly.

What is one of the key findings of Graebner’s book?

  • Evolution is a science, not a theory.
  • Evolution is based on solid scientific evidence.
  • Evolution is consistent with Christian beliefs.
  • Evolution cannot be empirically tested and relies on assumptions.

Correct Answer: Evolution cannot be empirically tested and relies on assumptions. Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner emphasizes that scientific theories must be based on evidence and must be falsifiable. Evolution, according to Graebner, does not meet this standard.

What is one of the arguments Graebner uses against the theory of evolution?

  • The similarities in structure between different species are evidence of common ancestry.
  • The human brain is structurally perfect and cannot be explained by evolution.
  • The fossil record provides overwhelming evidence for evolution.
  • Evolution explains the origin of life and the diversity of living things.

Correct Answer: The human brain is structurally perfect and cannot be explained by evolution. Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner points to the human brain’s unique capabilities for language, progress, and culture as evidence against evolutionary explanations for human origins.

What does Graebner argue about the relationship between evolution and Christian beliefs?

  • Evolution and Christian beliefs are compatible and can coexist.
  • Evolution contradicts Christian beliefs about creation and the nature of humanity.
  • The Bible supports the theory of evolution.
  • Evolution provides a scientific basis for Christian beliefs.

Correct Answer: Evolution contradicts Christian beliefs about creation and the nature of humanity. Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner argues that evolutionary theory challenges the biblical account of creation and the existence of a personal God, as well as the nature of the human soul and the necessity of redemption.

What does Graebner say about the “missing link”?

  • The “missing link” has been found, providing conclusive evidence for evolution.
  • The lack of a “missing link” is a major problem for evolution.
  • The “missing link” is not necessary to support Darwin’s theory.
  • The “missing link” is irrelevant to the debate about evolution.

Correct Answer: The lack of a “missing link” is a major problem for evolution. Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner points to the lack of conclusive fossil evidence for a direct evolutionary link between humans and apes as a problem for Darwin’s theory.

What does Graebner’s book suggest about the nature of science?

  • Science is the only source of knowledge.
  • Scientific theories must be based on evidence and be falsifiable.
  • Science can provide answers to all questions about the universe.
  • Science and religion are incompatible.

Correct Answer: Scientific theories must be based on evidence and be falsifiable. Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner emphasizes the importance of evaluating scientific theories critically, considering their limitations, and acknowledging the value of alternative perspectives.

What does Graebner’s book argue about the limits of scientific explanation?

  • Science can explain everything.
  • Science cannot provide a complete explanation for the origin and diversity of life.
  • Evolution is the only scientific explanation for the origin of life.
  • Science is always wrong.

Correct Answer: Science cannot provide a complete explanation for the origin and diversity of life. Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner’s critique highlights the importance of evaluating scientific theories critically, considering their limitations, and acknowledging the value of alternative perspectives.

What does Graebner say about the importance of alternative perspectives?

  • Religious perspectives are irrelevant to the debate about evolution.
  • Religious perspectives offer valuable insights into the nature of reality.
  • Religious perspectives are incompatible with science.
  • Religious perspectives are the only source of truth.

Correct Answer: Religious perspectives offer valuable insights into the nature of reality. Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner argues that religious perspectives, like those found in Christianity, offer valuable insights into the nature of reality.

What is the Nebular Hypothesis?

  • A theory that explains the origin of life.
  • A theory that explains the origin of the universe.
  • A theory that explains the origin of the solar system.
  • A theory that explains the origin of matter.

Correct Answer: A theory that explains the origin of the solar system. Correct Answer Explanation: The Nebular Hypothesis attempts to explain the formation of our solar system from a rotating cloud of gas and dust.

What does Graebner argue about the Nebular Hypothesis?

  • It is a strong explanation for the origin of the solar system.
  • It is a flawed theory that cannot explain the origin of motion, solid bodies, or satellite movement.
  • It is the only possible explanation for the formation of the solar system.
  • It is a perfect theory that perfectly explains the origin of the solar system.

Correct Answer: It is a flawed theory that cannot explain the origin of motion, solid bodies, or satellite movement. Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner argues that the Nebular Hypothesis is flawed as it cannot explain the origin of motion, the formation of solid bodies from gases, or the difference in the movement of satellites around various planets.

What is spontaneous generation?

  • The idea that life can arise from non-living matter.
  • The idea that life can only arise from pre-existing life.
  • The idea that life arose from a primordial soup.
  • The idea that life was created by a divine being.

Correct Answer: The idea that life can arise from non-living matter. Correct Answer Explanation: The theory of spontaneous generation was a prevalent idea for centuries, suggesting that life could arise from non-living matter.

What does Graebner say about spontaneous generation?

  • It is a scientifically proven theory.
  • It is a flawed theory that has been disproven by scientific experiments.
  • It is the only possible explanation for the origin of life.
  • It is a very plausible theory that has yet to be disproven.

Correct Answer: It is a flawed theory that has been disproven by scientific experiments. Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner points to experiments like those of Francesco Redi and Louis Pasteur which demonstrate that life only arises from pre-existing life.

What is protoplasm?

  • A type of rock found in fossils.
  • A complex substance that makes up all living things.
  • A type of bacteria.
  • A type of gas found in the atmosphere.

Correct Answer: A complex substance that makes up all living things. Correct Answer Explanation: Protoplasm is a complex substance that is the fundamental building block of all living cells.

What does Graebner argue about protoplasm?

  • It is a simple substance that can be easily explained by evolutionary theory.
  • It is incredibly complex and cannot be simply explained as a primordial substance.
  • It is the missing link between non-living matter and living things.
  • It is the basis for all life and was created by God.

Correct Answer: It is incredibly complex and cannot be simply explained as a primordial substance. Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner argues that protoplasm, with its vast diversity and complexity, is not easily explained as a primordial substance.

What are biological barriers?

  • Physical barriers that prevent species from interbreeding.
  • Differences between major groups of organisms that are difficult to explain through evolution.
  • Barriers that prevent the spread of diseases.
  • Barriers that prevent the movement of organisms.

Correct Answer: Differences between major groups of organisms that are difficult to explain through evolution. Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner argues that biological barriers, such as the differences between plants and animals or vertebrates and invertebrates, are difficult to explain through evolution.

What is one of the biological barriers discussed in Graebner’s book?

  • The difference between birds and mammals.
  • The difference between plants and animals.
  • The difference between insects and reptiles.
  • The difference between fish and amphibians.

Correct Answer: The difference between plants and animals. Correct Answer Explanation: The fundamental differences between plants and animals present a challenge for evolutionary explanations.

What does Graebner say about the human brain?

  • It is not structurally perfect and has evolved over time.
  • It is a complex organ that has evolved from simpler brains.
  • It is structurally perfect and unique in its capacity for language, progress, and culture.
  • It is not much different from the brains of other animals.

Correct Answer: It is structurally perfect and unique in its capacity for language, progress, and culture. Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner points to the human brain’s unique capabilities for language, progress, and culture as evidence against evolutionary explanations for human origins.

What does Graebner argue about the human mind?

  • It is a product of material forces and can be fully explained by evolution.
  • It possesses faculties that cannot be explained by material forces, such as intellect, reason, imagination, and a moral nature.
  • It is not much different from the minds of other animals.
  • It is a simple organ that is not very different from the brains of other animals.

Correct Answer: It possesses faculties that cannot be explained by material forces, such as intellect, reason, imagination, and a moral nature. Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner contends that the human mind possesses faculties that cannot be explained by material forces, such as intellect, reason, imagination, and a moral nature.

What is one of the arguments Graebner uses to support his critique of evolution?

  • The fossil record shows a gradual progression from simple to complex forms.
  • Embryonic development demonstrates a clear evolutionary relationship between species.
  • Evolution explains the origin of life and the diversity of living things.
  • The human brain is not structurally perfect and has evolved over time.

Correct Answer: Embryonic development demonstrates a clear evolutionary relationship between species. Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner argues that embryonic development does not necessarily imply evolutionary relationships, as similar developmental stages can arise through different mechanisms.

What is one of the key issues Graebner raises about the theory of evolution?

  • It provides a complete explanation for the origin and diversity of life.
  • It is a well-supported theory with no major flaws.
  • It is the only plausible explanation for the origin of life.
  • It leaves some fundamental questions unanswered.

Correct Answer: It leaves some fundamental questions unanswered. Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner argues that the theory of evolution, while attempting to explain the origin and diversity of life, still leaves some fundamental questions unanswered.

What does Graebner say about theistic evolution?

  • It provides a convincing explanation for the origins of life and diversity.
  • It is the only possible explanation for the origin of life.
  • It is a flawed framework that merely adds God to a flawed theory.
  • It is a well-supported scientific theory that is consistent with Christian beliefs.

Correct Answer: It is a flawed framework that merely adds God to a flawed theory. Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner argues that theistic evolution does not address the fundamental issues with the theory, but simply adds God to a flawed framework.

What does Graebner argue about the value of religion?

  • Religion is irrelevant to the debate about evolution.
  • Religion is incompatible with science.
  • Religion is the only source of truth.
  • Religion offers valuable insights into the nature of reality and human purpose.

Correct Answer: Religion offers valuable insights into the nature of reality and human purpose. Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner argues that religious perspectives, like those found in Christianity, offer valuable insights into the nature of reality.

What is one of the key themes of Graebner’s book?

  • The importance of accepting scientific theories without question.
  • The need to approach complex issues with intellectual honesty and humility.
  • The need to reject all religious perspectives.
  • The need to embrace evolution as the only explanation for the origin of life.

Correct Answer: The need to approach complex issues with intellectual honesty and humility. Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner’s work emphasizes the importance of critical thinking, questioning assumptions, and considering different perspectives when evaluating scientific theories.

What is the name of the Italian naturalist who disproved spontaneous generation?

  • Louis Pasteur
  • Charles Darwin
  • Francesco Redi
  • Alfred Russel Wallace

Correct Answer: Francesco Redi Correct Answer Explanation: Francesco Redi’s experiments in the 17th century showed that flies were necessary for the development of maggots in meat, contradicting the theory of spontaneous generation.

What did Louis Pasteur’s experiments demonstrate?

  • That sterilized water produces life.
  • That life only arises from pre-existing life.
  • That spontaneous generation is a viable theory.
  • That evolution is a proven fact.

Correct Answer: That life only arises from pre-existing life. Correct Answer Explanation: Louis Pasteur’s experiments in the 19th century, which involved sterilizing broth and exposing it to air, confirmed that life only arises from pre-existing life.

Who is Alfred Russel Wallace?

  • A contemporary of Charles Darwin who independently developed the theory of natural selection.
  • A scientist who disproved spontaneous generation.
  • A proponent of the Nebular Hypothesis.
  • A critic of Darwin’s theory of evolution.

Correct Answer: A contemporary of Charles Darwin who independently developed the theory of natural selection. Correct Answer Explanation: Alfred Russel Wallace, alongside Charles Darwin, independently developed the theory of natural selection.

What did Alfred Russel Wallace acknowledge about protoplasm?

  • That it was a simple substance easily explained by evolution.
  • That it was a product of spontaneous generation.
  • That it was a complex substance requiring new powers to explain.
  • That it was the “missing link” between non-living matter and living things.

Correct Answer: That it was a complex substance requiring new powers to explain. Correct Answer Explanation: Wallace recognized the complexity of protoplasm and acknowledged that new powers were needed to explain the properties of life.

What was Bathybius?

  • A type of fossil that was thought to be a “missing link”.
  • A supposed primordial protoplasm that was later proven to be a hoax.
  • A theory explaining the origin of the solar system.
  • A type of bacteria that was thought to be the origin of life.

Correct Answer: A supposed primordial protoplasm that was later proven to be a hoax. Correct Answer Explanation: Bathybius was a supposed primordial protoplasm that was later shown to be a chemical precipitate, exposing the scientific hoax.

What does Graebner argue about the diversity of protoplasm?

  • It supports the theory of spontaneous generation.
  • It provides strong evidence for evolution.
  • It contradicts the idea of a single, original protoplasm evolving into all living forms.
  • It supports the idea of a common designer.

Correct Answer: It contradicts the idea of a single, original protoplasm evolving into all living forms. Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner argues that the vast diversity of protoplasm, with its different consistencies, shapes, structures, and functions, makes it difficult to explain its origin as a single, original primordial substance.

What is one of the principles of biology that contradicts the idea of a single original protoplasm?

  • Every species produces its own kind.
  • Organisms can evolve into new species.
  • All life on Earth shares a common ancestor.
  • Organisms can spontaneously generate.

Correct Answer: Every species produces its own kind. Correct Answer Explanation: This fundamental biological principle, observed through centuries of natural history, contradicts the idea of a single, original protoplasm evolving into all living forms.

What did Darwin claim about species?

  • They tend to remain stable and unchanged.
  • They tend to increase in number in a geometric progression.
  • They are all equally well-suited to their environment.
  • They are all created by a divine being.

Correct Answer: They tend to increase in number in a geometric progression. Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin’s theory of natural selection is based on the idea that species tend to increase in number in a geometric progression, leading to a struggle for existence.

What did Wallace state about the relationship between births and deaths in nature?

  • Every year, more organisms are born than die.
  • Every year, on average, as many organisms die as are born.
  • Every year, fewer organisms are born than die.
  • The number of births and deaths is not related.

Correct Answer: Every year, on average, as many organisms die as are born. Correct Answer Explanation: Wallace’s observation underscores the intense struggle for existence, a key component of natural selection.

What was the “Challenger” expedition?

  • An expedition that discovered Bathybius.
  • An expedition that disproved the theory of spontaneous generation.
  • An expedition that provided strong evidence for evolution.
  • An expedition that failed to find Bathybius in the ocean.

Correct Answer: An expedition that failed to find Bathybius in the ocean. Correct Answer Explanation: The “Challenger” expedition, a major scientific voyage in the 19th century, failed to find Bathybius in the ocean, further exposing the hoax of this supposed primordial protoplasm.

What is one of the key arguments against the idea that the human brain has evolved from simpler brains?

  • The human brain is structurally perfect, even in the lowest humans.
  • The human brain is not much different from the brains of other animals.
  • The human brain is a product of spontaneous generation.
  • The human brain is a product of the Nebular Hypothesis.

Correct Answer: The human brain is structurally perfect, even in the lowest humans. Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner argues that the human brain’s perfect structure, even in the lowest humans, indicates that it is a fundamental characteristic of humanity, not a product of evolutionary development.

What is the term used to describe continuous progressive change according to certain laws?

  • Organic evolution
  • Natural selection
  • Spontaneous generation
  • Evolution

Correct Answer: Evolution Correct Answer Explanation: Evolution refers to the continuous progressive change according to certain laws and by means of resident forces.

What is the term used to describe evolution as it relates to living forms?

  • Cosmic evolution
  • Organic evolution
  • Natural selection
  • Survival of the fittest

Correct Answer: Organic evolution Correct Answer Explanation: Organic evolution refers to evolution as it relates to living forms (plant and animal life).

What is the term used to describe evolution as it relates to the development of the universe?

  • Cosmic evolution
  • Organic evolution
  • Natural selection
  • Survival of the fittest

Correct Answer: Cosmic evolution Correct Answer Explanation: Cosmic evolution refers to evolution as it relates to the development of the universe.

What is natural selection?

  • The process by which organisms best suited to their environment survive and reproduce.
  • The process by which organisms spontaneously generate.
  • The process by which organisms evolve into new species.
  • The process by which organisms are created by a divine being.

Correct Answer: The process by which organisms best suited to their environment survive and reproduce. Correct Answer Explanation: Natural selection is the process by which organisms best suited to their environment survive and reproduce, passing on their advantageous traits.

What is the term used to describe the outcome of natural selection?

  • Survival of the fittest
  • Cosmic evolution
  • Organic evolution
  • Spontaneous generation

Correct Answer: Survival of the fittest Correct Answer Explanation: The phrase “survival of the fittest” is often used to describe the outcome of natural selection, where organisms best adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce.

What is palaeontology?

  • The study of the human mind.
  • The study of the origin of life.
  • The study of fossils.
  • The study of the solar system.

Correct Answer: The study of fossils Correct Answer Explanation: Palaeontology is the study of fossils, which provides insights into the history of life on Earth.

What is morphology?

  • The study of the form and structure of organisms.
  • The study of the development of embryos.
  • The study of the behavior of animals.
  • The study of the origin of life.

Correct Answer: The study of the form and structure of organisms. Correct Answer Explanation: Morphology is the study of the form and structure of organisms, comparing different species and identifying similarities and differences.

What is embryology?

  • The study of the form and structure of organisms.
  • The study of the development of embryos.
  • The study of the behavior of animals.
  • The study of the origin of life.

Correct Answer: The study of the development of embryos. Correct Answer Explanation: Embryology is the study of the development of embryos, studying the stages of development and comparing different species.

What is the term for animals with a backbone?

  • Invertebrates
  • Vertebrates
  • Prokaryotes
  • Eukaryotes

Correct Answer: Vertebrates Correct Answer Explanation: Vertebrates are animals with a backbone, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish.

What is the term for animals without a backbone?

  • Invertebrates
  • Vertebrates
  • Prokaryotes
  • Eukaryotes

Correct Answer: Invertebrates Correct Answer Explanation: Invertebrates are animals without a backbone, including insects, worms, mollusks, and crustaceans.

What example does Darwin use to illustrate natural selection?

  • The dipper bird
  • The “missing link”
  • Bathybius
  • The human brain

Correct Answer: The dipper bird Correct Answer Explanation: Darwin used the example of the dipper bird, with its specialized traits for diving underwater, to illustrate how natural selection could lead to the development of specialized traits.

What is one of the examples Graebner uses to support his critique of evolution?

  • The dipper bird
  • The “missing link”
  • Bathybius
  • The human brain

Correct Answer: Bathybius Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner points to the Bathybius hoax, a supposed primordial protoplasm, as evidence against the theory of evolution.

What does Graebner argue about the fossil record?

  • It provides conclusive evidence for evolution.
  • It does not support a gradual progression from simple to complex forms.
  • It is irrelevant to the debate about evolution.
  • It is a perfect record of the history of life on Earth.

Correct Answer: It does not support a gradual progression from simple to complex forms. Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner argues that the fossil record does not support a gradual progression from simple to complex forms, but rather shows a wide variety of species appearing suddenly.

What is one of the examples Graebner uses to illustrate the uniqueness of the human brain?

  • The dipper bird
  • The “missing link”
  • Bathybius
  • The human brain

Correct Answer: The human brain Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner points to the human brain’s perfect structure and unique capabilities as evidence against evolutionary explanations for human origins.

What is one of the examples Graebner uses to illustrate the unique capabilities of the human mind?

  • The dipper bird
  • The “missing link”
  • Bathybius
  • The human brain

Correct Answer: The human brain Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner argues that the human mind, with its capacity for reason, imagination, and morality, is evidence of a non-material element in human nature.

What is one of the examples Graebner uses to illustrate the lack of a “missing link”?

  • The dipper bird
  • The “missing link”
  • Bathybius
  • The human brain

Correct Answer: The “missing link” Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner points to the lack of conclusive fossil evidence for a direct evolutionary link between humans and apes as a problem for Darwin’s theory.

What is one of the examples Graebner uses to illustrate the concept of the fall of man?

  • The dipper bird
  • The “missing link”
  • Bathybius
  • The human brain

Correct Answer: The fall of man Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner argues that the biblical account of human sin and its consequences is evidence against the idea of human evolution.

What is one of the examples Graebner uses to illustrate the concept of redemption?

  • The dipper bird
  • The “missing link”
  • Bathybius
  • The human brain

Correct Answer: Redemption Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner argues that the Christian doctrine of salvation is a necessary consequence of the fall of man, and therefore incompatible with the theory of evolution.

What is one of the examples Graebner uses to illustrate the concept of miracles?

  • The dipper bird
  • The “missing link”
  • Bathybius
  • The human brain

Correct Answer: Miracles Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner argues that miracles, events that defy the laws of nature, are evidence of God’s intervention and contradict the theory of evolution.

What is one of the examples Graebner uses to illustrate the concept of revelation?

  • The dipper bird
  • The “missing link”
  • Bathybius
  • The human brain

Correct Answer: Revelation Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner argues that the Bible, as a divine revelation, offers guidance on the nature of reality and human purpose, challenging the theory of evolution.

What is one of the key conclusions of Graebner’s book?

  • Evolution is a well-supported theory.
  • Evolution is the only plausible explanation for the origin of life.
  • Evolution is compatible with Christian beliefs.
  • Evolution is a flawed theory that fails to explain fundamental origins, contradicts scientific observations, and is incompatible with Christian beliefs.

Correct Answer: Evolution is a flawed theory that fails to explain fundamental origins, contradicts scientific observations, and is incompatible with Christian beliefs. Correct Answer Explanation: Graebner’s book presents a strong case against the theory of evolution. He argues that the theory fails to explain fundamental origins, contradicts scientific observations, and is incompatible with Christian beliefs.

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