Food Fortification Trivia Questions and Answers

bundle of assorted vegetable lot

1: What is the primary goal of food fortification?
A: To add flavor to food
B: To enhance food shelf life
C: To reduce dietary deficiencies in a population
D: To increase food production
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Food fortification is aimed at reducing the number of people with dietary deficiencies by adding essential micronutrients to food.

2: Which organization defines fortification as an increase in essential micronutrients in food to provide health benefits?
A: Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
B: World Health Organization (WHO)
C: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
D: National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The World Health Organization (WHO) describes fortification as the deliberate increase of essential micronutrients in food to improve nutritional quality.

3: Which two food items commonly undergo commercial and industrial fortification?
A: Chocolate and coffee beans
B: Wheat flour and cooking oils
C: Fruits and vegetables
D: Meat and fish
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Commercial and industrial fortification often involves adding micronutrients to wheat flour and cooking oils.

4: What is biofortification?
A: Adding flavors to food
B: Breeding crops to increase their nutritional value
C: Processing food to enhance taste
D: Preserving food using chemicals
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Biofortification refers to breeding crops to increase their nutritional value, which can involve conventional breeding or genetic engineering.

5: Which vitamin is commonly added to orange juice as part of food fortification?
A: Vitamin C
B: Vitamin A
C: Vitamin D
D: Calcium
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: Orange juice is often fortified with calcium to provide additional health benefits.

6: According to Canadian Food and Drug Regulations, why is food fortification justified?
A: To improve taste
B: To increase calorie content
C: To replace nutrients lost during manufacturing
D: To enhance food color
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: One reason food fortification is justified according to Canadian regulations is to replace nutrients lost during the manufacturing process.

7: What is the most commonly fortified food item globally?
A: Sugar
B: Milk
C: Wheat flour
D: Rice
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Wheat flour is the most commonly fortified food item globally, enriched with various vitamins and minerals.

8: Which country mandates the fortification of wheat flour with iron, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and folic acid by law?
A: Argentina
B: Japan
C: Sweden
D: Egypt
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Argentina mandates the fortification of wheat flour with iron, thiamine (vitamin B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), and folic acid (B9).

9: In the Philippines, which component of the food fortification law has been criticized for targeting low-nutritional-value food?
A: Mandatory fortification
B: Voluntary fortification under the Sangkap Pinoy program
C: Import regulations on fortified foods
D: Export policies on fortified foods
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The voluntary component under the Sangkap Pinoy program has been criticized for focusing on low-nutritional-value foods like junk food, to allow them to be sold in schools.

10: When did food fortification first emerge as a strategy in the United States?
A: 1880s
B: 1920s
C: 1950s
D: 1970s
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Food fortification began in the United States in the 1920s to address the lack of micronutrients in the population’s diet.

11: What did the 1980 Food Fortification Policy by the FDA emphasize for the first time?
A: Taste enhancement
B: Adding only safe colorants
C: The importance of clinical data
D: Adding more preservatives
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: The 1980 FDA policy emphasized the importance of clinical data to ensure the appropriateness and effectiveness of food fortification efforts.

12: What did the discovery of curing conditions of beriberi and scurvy in the 1930s lead researchers to investigate further?
A: Heart disease treatments
B: Curing rickets with food
C: Mental health cures
D: Treatments for diabetes
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: After curing beriberi and scurvy, researchers aimed to investigate whether food could cure rickets, leading to the discovery of vitamin D’s role.

13: What was the significant health impact of fortifying flour with folic acid in many industrialized countries?
A: Reduced instances of heart disease
B: Decreased cases of neural tube defects (NTDs)
C: Improved mental health
D: Increased vitamin C absorption
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Fortifying flour with folic acid significantly decreased the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) like spina bifida and anencephaly.

14: What was a major piece of legislation in Denmark related to food fortification enacted in 2004?
A: Restricting foods fortified with extra vitamins or minerals
B: Enhancing mandatory fortification of all food products
C: Increasing subsidies for fortified foods
D: Banning all synthetic vitamins
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Denmark passed legislation in 2004 to restrict foods fortified with extra vitamins or minerals due to safety concerns.

15: Why is skim milk less efficient in providing vitamins A and D compared to whole milk?
A: It lacks necessary proteins
B: It contains less fat required for absorption
C: It has higher water content
D: It has fewer sugars
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Skim milk lacks fat, which is necessary for the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins A and D, making it less efficient.

16: What nutrient deficiency is commonly associated with the disease Pellagra?
A: Vitamin C
B: Niacin (Vitamin B3)
C: Vitamin K
D: Calcium
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Pellagra is associated with a deficiency in niacin (Vitamin B3) and was particularly prevalent among populations with diets heavy in untreated corn.

17: Which safeguard did the 2002 farm bill in the United States establish for food aid programs?
A: Enhanced flavor additives
B: Fortification of grains with micronutrients
C: Increasing production quotas
D: Adding more preservatives to canned goods
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The 2002 farm bill requires fortification of grains and other commodities with micronutrients like iron, vitamin A, and iodine in food aid programs.

18: Which food item has been commonly fortified to prevent goiters and other iodine deficiency disorders?
A: Rice
B: Salt
C: Sugar
D: Dairy products
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Salt has been widely fortified with iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disorders including goiters.

19: Which food initiative lists countries and their food fortification programs?
A: Global Health Organization
B: Food Fortification Data Exchange
C: World Food Program
D: International Food Safety Council
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The Food Fortification Data Exchange maintains data on countries and their food fortification programs.

20: Why were high levels of fluoride discovered in certain towns in the mid-1900s beneficial beyond dental health?
A: Prevented cardiovascular diseases
B: Reduced osteoporosis rates
C: Improved overall immunity
D: Strengthened resistance to dental caries
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: High levels of fluoride in water were found to strengthen resistance to dental caries, prompting the controlled fortification of water supplies with fluoride.

21: Which form of vitamin is particularly toxic at high doses?
A: Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
B: Vitamin A (retinol)
C: Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
D: Vitamin D (cholecalciferol)
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Retinol, the active form of Vitamin A, can be toxic at high doses, unlike other forms such as beta carotene.

22: What was the primary reason for fortifying margarine, vegetable oils, and dairy products with Vitamin D?
A: To enhance their flavor
B: To prevent rickets
C: To reduce production costs
D: To meet export standards
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Vitamin D was added to these foods to prevent rickets, a disease caused by vitamin D deficiency.

23: What is a significant advantage of food fortification mentioned in the Canadian Food and Drug Regulations?
A: It makes food more colorful
B: It does not require a change in dietary patterns
C: It increases the food’s natural scent
D: It eliminates all dietary deficiencies
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Advantageously, food fortification can treat nutrient deficiencies without requiring changes in people’s dietary patterns.

24: How did fortifying food with folic acid impact neural tube defect rates in infants in industrialized countries?
A: Reduced them by 10%
B: Increased medical costs
C: Prevented neural tube defects significantly
D: Had no measurable impact
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Fortifying food with folic acid significantly reduced the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) in infants.

25: Why might the bioavailability of nutrients in fortified foods be limited compared to natural foods?
A: Higher sugar content
B: Isolated nutrients may not be as effectively absorbed
C: Reduced flavor content
D: Higher water content
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Isolated nutrients added to processed foods may not be absorbed as effectively as when in their natural, whole-food forms.

26: Which essential micronutrient used in fortification prevents mental retardation if adequately consumed during early development?
A: Calcium
B: Vitamin B12
C: Iodine
D: Magnesium
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Adequate iodine intake is crucial during early development to prevent mental retardation and other intellectual disabilities.

27: What triggered the mandatory fortification of foods like milk, margarine, and cereals with Vitamin D in the 1930s?
A: Discovery of the cure for rickets
B: New culinary trends
C: Higher food prices
D: World War I food shortages
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: The discovery that Vitamin D could cure rickets led to the mandatory fortification of these foods.

28: What is the tolerable upper intake level for fluoride in adults according to dietary guidelines?
A: 1 mg/day
B: 5 mg/day
C: 10 mg/day
D: 15 mg/day
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: The tolerable upper intake level for fluoride in adults is 10 mg/day, aimed at preventing dental and skeletal fluorosis.

29: How did the fortification of wheat flour in Colombia impact public health?
A: Increased shelf life of flour
B: Reduced vitamin deficiencies
C: Boosted food export
D: Improved flavor profile
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: In Colombia, fortifying wheat flour with essential vitamins and iron reduced nutrient deficiencies in the population.

30: Which country requires the fortification of all flour (except wholemeal and some self-raising flours) with calcium?
A: Australia
B: Brazil
C: United Kingdom
D: India
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: The United Kingdom mandates the fortification of all flour (except wholemeal and some self-raising flours) with calcium.

31: What was a major policy change introduced by the 1980 Food Fortification Policy in the United States?
A: Increasing food preservatives
B: Inclusion of clinical data for fortification
C: Mandating fortification of all packaged foods
D: Banning synthetic vitamins
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The policy emphasized the importance of clinical data to justify the fortification of food with essential micronutrients.

32: What impact did niacin fortification have in the United States starting in 1938?
A: Increased cases of skin cancer
B: Reduced incidence of pellagra
C: Enhanced food color
D: Decreased food prices
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Fortifying bread with niacin significantly reduced the incidence of pellagra, a disease caused by niacin deficiency.

33: Which type of fortification involves adding vitamins and minerals back to food that were lost during processing?
A: Biofortification
B: Industrial fortification
C: Home fortification
D: Enrichment
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: Enrichment refers to the addition of vitamins and minerals back to food that were lost during processing to improve their nutritional value.

34: What are the most common types of foods that undergo fortification, according to FAO?
A: Meat and seafood
B: Cereals and dairy products
C: Fruits and vegetables
D: Nuts and seeds
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The most commonly fortified foods include cereals, cereal-based products, milk, and dairy products.

35: Which micronutrient deficiency is most commonly addressed through the fortification of iodized salt?
A: Vitamin D deficiency
B: Calcium deficiency
C: Iodine deficiency
D: Iron deficiency
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Iodine deficiency is commonly addressed through the fortification of salt with iodine to prevent related health issues like goiters.

36: What proportion of children showed bone deformations due to vitamin D deficiency in the late 1800s, before vitamin D fortification?
A: 10-20%
B: 30-40%
C: 80-90%
D: 50-60%
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Approximately 80-90% of children exhibited varying degrees of bone deformations due to vitamin D deficiency before fortification efforts.

37: Why is phytochemicals like phytic acid in grains a concern in food fortification?
A: They add a bitter taste to food
B: They can limit the absorption of added nutrients
C: They increase the shelf life of fortified food
D: They improve the food processing efficiency
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Phytochemicals like phytic acid can limit nutrient absorption, reducing the effectiveness of fortification programs.

38: What was a critical factor leading to the 1992 pledge by 159 countries to combat micronutrient deficiencies?
A: Increase in foodborne illnesses
B: Discovery that 1 in 3 people were at risk for deficiencies
C: Rise in obesity rates
D: Food shortages due to wars
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The 1992 pledge was driven by the statistic that 1 in 3 people worldwide were at risk for iodine, vitamin A, or iron deficiencies.

39: Which food item often has vitamin D added to it, yet its absorption might be limited compared due to its reduced fat content?
A: Whole milk
B: Skim milk
C: Butter
D: Cheese
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Vitamin D added to skim milk might be absorbed less effectively due to the lack of fat, which is not an issue in whole milk.

40: What criticism arose regarding some manufacturers’ fortification practices in the 20th century?
A: Adding too many preservatives
B: Fortifying junk food and beer for marketing
C: Reducing product shelf life
D: Increasing costs
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Manufacturers were criticized for fortifying junk food and beer as a marketing strategy, which was not aligned with public health goals.

41: Which fortification initiative indicates global data on mandatory and voluntary fortification programs?
A: Global Health Data Exchange
B: Food Fortification Initiative
C: International Nutrition Council
D: World Food Program
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The Food Fortification Initiative provides data on mandatory and voluntary fortification programs across the globe.

42: Which form of Vitamin K has been phased out due to toxicity concerns?
A: Phytonadione
B: Menaquinone
C: Menadione
D: Ergocalciferol
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Menadione, a synthetic form of Vitamin K, has been phased out due to its known toxicity.

43: Which fortified food is known to significantly reduce the incidence of neural tube defects in infants?
A: Fortified bread
B: Calcium-fortified orange juice
C: Folate-fortified flour
D: Vitamin D milk
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Folate-fortified flour has been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of neural tube defects in infants.

44: How has the introduction of fortified salt impacted public health?
A: Lowered food prices
B: Reduced cases of iodine deficiency disorders
C: Increased variety of salt flavors
D: Improved shelf life of foods
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Fortifying salt with iodine has significantly reduced the incidence of iodine deficiency disorders worldwide.

45: What was the significant public health impact of the fortification of milk with vitamin D during the 1930s?
A: Increased taste of milk
B: Cure for rickets
C: Longer shelf life
D: Improved milk color
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The fortification of milk with vitamin D during the 1930s played a critical role in virtually eradicating rickets in children.

46: Which micronutrient is essential for preventing neural tube defects and is commonly added to cereals?
A: Vitamin C
B: Magnesium
C: Folic acid
D: Zinc
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Folic acid is essential in preventing neural tube defects and is commonly added to cereals.

47: Why was food fortification considered an effective public health intervention in the 1920s United States?
A: Improved food taste significantly
B: Increased national food exports
C: Addressed widespread micronutrient deficiencies
D: Made food cheaper to produce
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Fortification effectively addressed widespread micronutrient deficiencies, improving public health outcomes.

48: What type of food is often fortified with fluoride to prevent dental caries?
A: Dairy products
B: Wheat
C: Drinking water
D: Fruits and vegetables
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Fluoride is commonly added to drinking water to prevent dental caries and improve dental health.

49: What is a common criticism regarding the nutritional balance of fortified foods?
A: They taste too sweet
B: They use synthetic nutrients
C: They lack balance that natural foods have
D: They are too expensive
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Fortified foods often lack the nutrient balance found in natural foods, which can affect their overall nutritional impact.

50: Which disease was significantly reduced in the 1930s in the US by fortifying food with niacin?
A: Beriberi
B: Pellagra
C: Rickets
D: Scurvy
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Fortifying food with niacin significantly reduced the incidence of pellagra in the United States.

51: What challenge exists with adding vitamin A and vitamin D to foods that have had fat removed?
A: They are not water-soluble and require fat for absorption
B: They alter the color of the food
C: They make the food taste bitter
D: They spoil the food quickly
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Vitamins A and D are fat-soluble, and their absorption is less effective in foods with the fat removed.

52: Which group of people has a higher risk of vitamin D deficiency?
A: Office workers
B: Fishermen
C: Miners
D: Athletes
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Office workers are at a higher risk of vitamin D deficiency due to reduced sun exposure compared to other groups.

53: What is a potential effect of vitamin D deficiency in adults?
A: Memory loss
B: Rickets
C: Osteoporosis
D: Obesity
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Vitamin D deficiency in adults can lead to osteoporosis, a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones.

54: How did the initial fortification of wheat flour in the United States impact public health in the 1940s?
A: Increased food variety
B: Reduced micronutrient deficiencies
C: Boosted agricultural production
D: Enhanced food preservation
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The fortification of wheat flour in the 1940s helped reduce micronutrient deficiencies and associated health issues.

55: What is essential for the effectiveness of biofortification in crops?
A: Advanced irrigation systems
B: Increased use of pesticides
C: Selective breeding or genetic engineering
D: Traditional crop rotation
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Biofortification’s effectiveness relies on selective breeding or genetic engineering to increase the nutritional value of crops.

56: Why is milk often fortified with vitamin D?
A: To enhance its flavor
B: To promote healthy bone development
C: To increase its shelf life
D: To improve its color
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Milk is fortified with vitamin D to promote healthy bone development, especially in children.

57: Which micronutrient added to flour significantly reduces the risk of birth defects?
A: Iron
B: Folate
C: Calcium
D: Magnesium
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Adding folate to flour significantly reduces the risk of neural tube birth defects.

58: What global issue is addressed by fortifying foods with essential micronutrients?
A: Food waste
B: Climate change
C: Nutrient deficiencies
D: Import regulations
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Food fortification primarily aims to address the global issue of nutrient deficiencies in populations.

59: Which micronutrient is added to iodized salt to help prevent goiter and other related conditions?
A: Vitamin D
B: Calcium
C: Iodine
D: Iron
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Iodine is added to salt to prevent goiter and other iodine deficiency-related conditions such as intellectual disabilities.

60: How did fortifying bread in the United States starting in 1938 affect public health?
A: Reduced cases of pellagra
B: Increased cases of obesity
C: Improved bread flavor
D: Decreased bread shelf life
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Fortifying bread with niacin significantly reduced cases of pellagra, a disease caused by niacin deficiency.

Disclaimer: Please consult a physician before making any changes to your health regimen.

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