Insulin Resistance Diet Trivia Questions and Answers

poached egg with vegetables and tomatoes on blue plate

1: What is insulin resistance?
A: A condition where cells fail to respond normally to insulin
B: A condition where the pancreas produces no insulin
C: A condition caused by excess insulin production
D: A condition that only affects the liver
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Insulin resistance occurs when cells don’t respond properly to insulin, reducing glucose uptake from the bloodstream.

2: Which hormone facilitates the transport of glucose from the blood into cells?
A: Glucagon
B: Insulin
C: Cortisol
D: Adrenaline
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Insulin is the hormone responsible for moving glucose from the blood into cells.

3: Which factor is NOT a risk factor for insulin resistance?
A: Obesity
B: Sedentary lifestyle
C: Having a family history of diabetes
D: High intake of water
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: High water intake does not contribute to insulin resistance, unlike obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and genetics.

4: Which ethnic group is NOT mentioned as having a higher risk for insulin resistance?
A: African American
B: Hispanic/Latino
C: Pacific Islander
D: European American
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: European Americans are not listed as a high-risk group for insulin resistance.

5: Which condition is associated with increasing insulin needs during meals?
A: Morning
B: Afternoon
C: Evening
D: Midnight
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Insulin sensitivity is higher in the morning and lower in the evening, thus insulin needs increase later in the day.

6: Which vitamin deficiency has been linked to insulin resistance?
A: Vitamin A
B: Vitamin B12
C: Vitamin C
D: Vitamin D
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with insulin resistance.

7: Which lifestyle change can help improve insulin resistance?
A: Weight reduction
B: Increased screen time
C: High caffeine consumption
D: Avoiding all carbohydrates
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Weight reduction, along with exercise and dietary changes, can improve insulin resistance.

8: What type of diabetes is often associated with insulin resistance?
A: Type 1 diabetes
B: Type 2 diabetes
C: Juvenile diabetes
D: Gestational diabetes
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Type 2 diabetes is strongly associated with insulin resistance.

9: Which hormone counteracts insulin and contributes to insulin resistance?
A: Insulin
B: Cortisol
C: Glucagon
D: Estrogen
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Cortisol counteracts insulin, leading to increased glucose production and decreased insulin sensitivity.

10: Which test is considered the gold standard for investigating insulin resistance?
A: Fasting glucose test
B: HbA1c test
C: Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp
D: Random glucose test
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp is the gold standard for measuring insulin resistance.

11: Which organ’s malfunctioning is crucial in the development of insulin resistance?
A: Heart
B: Liver
C: Kidneys
D: Small intestine
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The liver plays a critical role in insulin resistance by improperly managing glucose production.

12: Which type of exercise is most effective in reducing insulin levels in obese adolescents?
A: Resistance training
B: Aerobic exercise
C: Yoga
D: Sprinting
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Aerobic exercise is shown to reduce fasting insulin levels.

13: Which hormone produced by adipocytes regulates hunger and is linked to insulin resistance?
A: Insulin
B: Leptin
C: Ghrelin
D: Cortisol
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Leptin, produced by fat cells, regulates hunger and its deficiency is linked to insulin resistance.

14: Which fatty acid type is inversely correlated with insulin resistance?
A: Saturated fatty acids
B: Monounsaturated fatty acids
C: Trans fatty acids
D: Polyunsaturated fatty acids
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: Higher intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is linked to lowered insulin resistance.

15: Which cytokine disrupts insulin signaling and is associated with inflammation?
A: Interleukin-1
B: TNF-α
C: Interleukin-6
D: NF-kappa-B
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: TNF-α disrupts insulin signaling and promotes insulin resistance through inflammation.

16: Which ethnic group has NOT been identified as high-risk for insulin resistance?
A: Native Hawaiian
B: African American
C: Asian American
D: Caucasian American
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: The article specifies several high-risk ethnicities, excluding Caucasian Americans.

17: Which hormone is elevated during pregnancy and reduces insulin sensitivity?
A: Insulin
B: Human placental lactogen
C: Estrogen
D: Testosterone
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Human placental lactogen is elevated during pregnancy, reducing insulin sensitivity to conserve glucose for the fetus.

18: What is the primary mechanism by which insulin facilitates glucose uptake in cells?
A: Increasing glucose production
B: Activating glucose transporters
C: Reducing glucose excretion
D: Transforming glucose into fat
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Insulin activates glucose transporters on cell membranes, increasing glucose uptake.

19: Which medical condition is NOT associated with insulin resistance?
A: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
B: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
C: Hepatitis C
D: Osteoporosis
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: Osteoporosis is not linked to insulin resistance, unlike PCOS, NAFLD, and Hepatitis C.

20: What test correlates well with the euglycemic clamp for insulin resistance but involves less operator error?
A: Fasting blood glucose test
B: Modified insulin suppression test
C: HbA1c test
D: Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The modified insulin suppression test correlates well and is simpler than the euglycemic clamp.

21: What is the role of the GLUT4 transporter in insulin resistance?
A: It decreases insulin production
B: It increases hepatic glucose production
C: It translocates to the cell membrane for glucose uptake
D: It increases lipid storage in cells
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: GLUT4 transporter moves to the cell surface to enable glucose uptake when insulin binds.

22: Which strategy can reduce the risk of progressing to type 2 diabetes by nearly double compared to medications?
A: Strict dietary fat restriction
B: Exercise and weight loss
C: Avoiding all forms of sugar
D: High protein diet
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Exercise and weight loss are almost twice as effective as medications in reducing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes according to the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP).

23: What happens to fat cells in insulin resistance?
A: They shrink
B: They increase glucose uptake
C: They reduce lipid uptake and increase triglyceride release
D: They decrease insulin sensitivity
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Fat cells in insulin resistance reduce lipid uptake and release more triglycerides, worsening insulin resistance.

24: Which method is NOT commonly used to measure insulin resistance in clinical practice?
A: Fasting insulin levels
B: HbA1c test
C: Glucose tolerance test
D: Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp is primarily used in research, not commonly in clinical practice.

25: Which cellular component’s dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance?
A: Nucleus
B: Mitochondria
C: Endoplasmic reticulum
D: Golgi apparatus
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Mitochondrial dysfunction is suggested to play a pivotal role in insulin resistance.

26: Which medication type associated with insulin resistance is used for mental health treatment?
A: Corticosteroids
B: Protease inhibitors
C: Atypical antipsychotics
D: Beta blockers
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Atypical antipsychotics are linked to increased insulin resistance.

27: Which hormone’s elevated levels indicate transitioning from insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes?
A: Cortisol
B: Insulin
C: Glucagon
D: Placental growth hormone
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Elevated insulin levels, initially compensating for insulin resistance, can indicate the transition to type 2 diabetes if they fail to control blood glucose.

28: What physiological role does leptin play in the body?
A: Signals hunger
B: Signals when the body is full
C: Converts glucose to energy
D: Increases insulin sensitivity
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Leptin signals the body when it is full, helping regulate hunger.

29: Which process results from visceral adiposity that contributes to insulin resistance?
A: Increased insulin production
B: Increased free fatty acids in blood plasma
C: Decreased glucose absorption
D: Reduced fat storage
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Visceral adiposity leads to increased free fatty acids in the blood, worsening insulin resistance.

30: What is the benchmark for a fasting serum insulin level suggesting insulin resistance?
A: 10 microIU/mL
B: 20 microIU/mL
C: 29 microIU/mL
D: 50 microIU/mL
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: A fasting serum insulin level greater than 29 microIU/mL indicates insulin resistance.

31: Which hormone, overproduced in visceral adiposity, disrupts normal insulin action?
A: Ghrelin
B: Leptin
C: Interleukin-1
D: TNF-α
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: TNF-α produced in visceral adipose tissue disrupts normal insulin action.

32: What is the primary treatment for insulin resistance according to clinical guidelines?
A: High protein diet
B: Exercise and weight loss
C: Vitamin supplements
D: Fasting
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Exercise and weight loss are primary clinical treatments for reducing insulin resistance.

33: Which factor does NOT increase the risk of insulin resistance?
A: Exposure to light during sleep
B: High-fat diet
C: Regular intense physical activity
D: Certain medications
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Intense physical activity actually reduces the risk of insulin resistance.

34: Which substance has yet to be identified but is theorized to signal insulin resistance from the small intestine?
A: A specific enzyme
B: A unique hormone
C: A signaling molecule
D: A neurotransmitter
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: A signaling molecule from the small intestine is theorized but not yet found to be linked to insulin resistance.

35: What percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is correlated with insulin resistance?
A: High percentage
B: Low percentage
C: No correlation
D: Varies by individual
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: A low percentage of PUFAs is inversely correlated with higher insulin resistance.

36: How much physical activity is suggested to reduce the risk of diabetes by 28%?
A: 30 minutes per day
B: 60 minutes per day
C: Over 90 minutes per day
D: 120 minutes a week
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: More than 90 minutes of physical activity daily significantly reduces the risk of diabetes.

37: What role does the liver play in insulin resistance?
A: It produces insulin
B: It reduces glucose production in response to insulin
C: It filters insulin out of the blood
D: It stores insulin
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Normally, the liver reduces glucose production in response to insulin, but this doesn’t happen effectively in insulin resistance.

38: What is NOT a common characteristic of insulin resistance in visceral adiposity?
A: Hypertension
B: Increased small dense LDL particles
C: Decreased HDL cholesterol levels
D: Increased bone density
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: Increased bone density is not associated with insulin resistance, unlike hypertension and dyslipidemia.

39: How is the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp enhanced in research?
A: By reducing duration
B: By using glucose tracers
C: By limiting insulin infusion
D: By increasing patient participation
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The technique is enhanced through glucose tracers to better measure insulin sensitivity.

40: What happens to beta cells in response to insulin resistance?
A: They shrink
B: They reduce insulin production
C: They increase insulin production
D: They stop functioning
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Beta cells increase insulin production in an attempt to compensate for insulin resistance.

41: Which method is simpler than the clamp techniques for measuring insulin resistance?
A: HbA1c test
B: Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA)
C: Polyunsaturated fatty acid levels
D: Muscle biopsy
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA) is simpler and correlates well with clamp tests.

42: What common dietary component is proposed as a fundamental factor in metabolic syndrome?
A: High sugar and fat intake
B: Low water intake
C: Gluten consumption
D: Excess protein intake
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: High sugar and fat-rich meals are proposed factors in the metabolic syndrome epidemic.

43: Which of these techniques requires glucose infusion to maintain blood sugar during the test?
A: Fasting glucose test
B: HbA1c test
C: Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp
D: Liver function test
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp involves infusion to keep blood sugar stable.

44: What is NOT a suggested preventative measure for insulin resistance?
A: Regular exercise
B: Maintaining healthy body weight
C: High sugar diet
D: Balanced diet
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: A high sugar diet is not recommended; regular exercise and a balanced diet help prevent insulin resistance.

45: Which fatty acids are thought to moderate the progression of insulin resistance into Type 2 diabetes?
A: Saturated fatty acids
B: Trans fatty acids
C: Monounsaturated fatty acids
D: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3)
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may help moderate the progression of insulin resistance.

46: Which study showed the benefits of exercise and diet over medication in reducing diabetes risk?
A: Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)
B: The Framingham Study
C: Women’s Health Initiative
D: Nurses’ Health Study
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) demonstrated that exercise and diet modifications reduce diabetes risk more effectively than medication.

47: What role do beta cells play in glucose metabolism?
A: They produce glucagon
B: They store glucose
C: They release insulin in response to blood glucose
D: They absorb glucose
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Beta cells in the pancreas release insulin in response to elevated blood glucose levels.

48: Which dietary component has been shown to reduce insulin resistance in healthy individuals?
A: Resistant starch
B: High fructose corn syrup
C: Saturated fats
D: Trans fats
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Resistant starch, such as that from high-amylose corn, reduces insulin resistance.

49: What is the primary signal for insulin release from beta cells?
A: Elevated blood glucose
B: Low blood glucose
C: Increased adipose tissue
D: High cortisol levels
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Elevated blood glucose levels signal beta cells to release insulin.

50: Which type of diabetes does NOT typically occur with insulin resistance?
A: Type 1 diabetes
B: Type 2 diabetes
C: Gestational diabetes
D: Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA)
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Type 1 diabetes is characterized by a lack of insulin production, not primarily by insulin resistance.

51: How is glucose disposal after a high-fat diet linked to insulin resistance?
A: By increasing insulin sensitivity
B: By supporting normal insulin signaling
C: By decreasing glucose uptake
D: By enhancing glucose metabolism
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: High-fat diets can decrease glucose uptake, worsening insulin resistance.

52: What is the purpose of glucose tolerance testing?
A: To measure fasting insulin levels
B: To diagnose and monitor diabetes
C: To assess liver function
D: To evaluate cholesterol levels
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Glucose tolerance testing is used to diagnose and monitor diabetes by assessing how the body processes glucose.

53: Which process fails during advanced insulin resistance leading to Type 2 diabetes?
A: Beta cells stop producing insulin
B: Insulin clears all blood glucose
C: Beta cells compensate with extra insulin
D: Insulin effectively manages blood glucose
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: As insulin resistance worsens and beta cells fail to produce sufficient insulin, Type 2 diabetes develops.

54: Which is NOT a function associated with insulin in the body?
A: Reduce blood glucose
B: Stimulate glucose uptake in cells
C: Increase lipid uptake in fat cells
D: Convert glucose to proteins
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: Insulin helps reduce blood glucose by stimulating glucose uptake and lipid storage, not by converting glucose to proteins.

55: What cellular process is disrupted in the presence of high TNF-α leading to insulin resistance?
A: Insulin receptor binding
B: Glucose uptake by muscle cells
C: Insulin signaling pathways
D: Glucose production by the liver
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Increased TNF-α disrupts insulin signaling pathways, contributing to insulin resistance.

56: What is the benefit of using glucose tracers in the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique?
A: To reduce test duration
B: To measure whole-body glucose metabolism
C: To avoid glucose infusion
D: To simplify the test
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Glucose tracers help measure whole-body glucose metabolism and the rate of glucose production.

57: Which policy has a lower impact on reducing insulin resistance compared to exercise and weight loss?
A: High carbohydrate intake
B: Medication such as metformin
C: Increased water consumption
D: Avoiding fat in meals
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: While medications like metformin are effective, exercise and weight loss have a greater impact on reducing insulin resistance.

58: What syndrome involves visceral adiposity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia?
A: Metabolic syndrome
B: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
C: Type 1 diabetes
D: Cardiovascular syndrome
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Metabolic syndrome includes visceral adiposity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia among its characteristics.

59: What is a possible consequence of light exposure during sleep on metabolic health?
A: Improved insulin sensitivity
B: Increased insulin resistance
C: Stabilized glucose levels
D: Reduced blood pressure
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Being exposed to light during sleep has been shown to increase insulin resistance.

60: What is the effect of insulin on fat cells in an insulin-resistant person?
A: Reduces fat storage
B: Increases lipid uptake
C: Stimulates new fat formation
D: Decreases blood lipid levels
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Insulin resistance leads to new fat formation and accelerated weight gain due to insulin promoting energy storage in fat cells.

Disclaimer: Please consult a physician before making any changes to your health regimen.

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