Ion (1999) Informative Summary


The dialogue “Ion” by Plato is a short but fascinating exploration of the nature of artistic inspiration. Socrates, the renowned philosopher, engages in a conversation with Ion, a rhapsode known for his impressive performances of Homer’s works. Socrates questions Ion’s belief that his skill stems from technical knowledge, suggesting instead that it arises from divine inspiration. Through a series of questions, Socrates leads Ion to acknowledge that his knowledge is limited to Homer and that he lacks the ability to analyze or understand other poets or even other artistic disciplines.

Socrates uses the analogy of a magnet to illustrate his point. He argues that the Muse, the source of inspiration, acts like a magnet, drawing poets and rhapsodes into a chain of influence. The poet receives the Muse’s inspiration directly, while the rhapsode receives it indirectly through the poet. This explains why rhapsodes often focus on a single poet, like Ion’s focus on Homer, and why they struggle to analyze or critique other poets.

Key Findings:

  • Ion’s expertise in Homer is based on divine inspiration, not on learned art.
  • The rhapsode is an interpreter of the poet, a conduit for the Muse’s inspiration.
  • True artistic knowledge involves understanding the whole art, not just a single aspect or artist.
  • Inspiration often leads to a narrow focus, as seen in Ion’s inability to appreciate other poets.


  • Ion is a rhapsode from Ephesus who won first prize at the festival of Asclepius in Epidaurus.
  • Ion believes he is the best interpreter of Homer, surpassing even other renowned Homeric scholars.
  • Ion admits he cannot analyze or interpret other poets, such as Hesiod or Archilochus, and even falls asleep during their recitations.
  • Socrates compares Ion’s skill to a magnet attracting iron rings, each ring representing an inspired individual connected to the Muse.
  • Socrates uses the example of Tynnichus the Chalcidian, a poet known only for his famous paean, to demonstrate how divine inspiration can produce exceptional works.
  • Socrates points out the emotional responses Ion and his audience experience during Homeric recitations, suggesting a state of heightened emotion and inspiration.
  • Ion acknowledges that his emotional responses during performance, like weeping or panic, indicate a loss of rationality.
  • Socrates argues that the poet, rhapsode, and spectator form a chain of inspiration, each receiving the Muse’s power indirectly from the one before.
  • Ion admits that the pilot is a better judge of navigation, the physician of medicine, and the fisherman of fishing techniques than he is.
  • Socrates argues that the rhapsode, like all artists, cannot possess knowledge of every art, as each art has its own unique subject matter.
  • Ion believes he knows what a general should say to his soldiers, and Socrates challenges this assumption.


  • Ion won first prize at the Epidaurian festival, indicating his status as a renowned rhapsode.
  • Ion claims to surpass other Homeric scholars, including Metrodorus of Lampsacus, Stesimbrotus of Thasos, and Glaucon.
  • Socrates mentions that more than 20,000 people may be present at a sacrifice or festival, illustrating the potential size of Ion’s audience.
  • There are numerous examples of foreigners being chosen as generals by the Athenians, contradicting Ion’s excuse for not being a general himself.


  • Rhapsode: A professional performer who recites epic poetry.
  • Inspiration: The act of being filled with divine or supernatural influence.
  • Muse: In Greek mythology, one of nine goddesses who preside over the arts and sciences.
  • Corybantian: A frenzied state of religious ecstasy.
  • Paean: A hymn of praise, particularly to Apollo.
  • Art: A learned skill or craft.
  • Divine Inspiration: The process of receiving guidance or creative ideas from a supernatural source.


  • The example of the Corybantian revellers, who dance and speak only under the influence of the God, is used to illustrate the state of divine possession.
  • Socrates uses the example of Tynnichus the Chalcidian to demonstrate how the Muse can inspire poets to create extraordinary works, even if their overall output is limited.
  • Socrates references several passages from Homer, such as the chariot race, the description of Hecamede giving Machaon a posset, and Theoclymenus’ prophecy, to highlight how the rhapsode’s knowledge is not comprehensive.
  • Socrates uses the example of Apollodorus of Cyzicus, Phanosthenes of Andros, and Heraclides of Clazomenae to show that foreigners can be appointed generals in Athens.

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