Lactose Intolerance Trivia Questions and Answers

a glass of milk next to a piece of cake

1: What is lactose intolerance primarily caused by?
A: An immune response to milk
B: Deficiency of the lactase enzyme
C: A type of milk allergy
D: Excessive consumption of dairy products
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Lactose intolerance is due to a lack of the enzyme lactase in the small intestines to break down lactose, a sugar found in dairy products.

2: Which two simple sugars make up lactose?
A: Glucose and fructose
B: Glucose and galactose
C: Sucrose and maltose
D: Fructose and sucrose
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Lactose is composed of two simple sugars: glucose and galactose.

3: How soon after consuming dairy products do symptoms of lactose intolerance usually begin?
A: Immediately
B: 30–120 minutes
C: 4–6 hours
D: The next day
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Symptoms typically start 30–120 minutes after eating or drinking something containing lactose.

4: Which of the following is NOT a common symptom of lactose intolerance?
A: Abdominal pain
B: Diarrhea
C: Hives
D: Flatulence
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Hives are a symptom of a milk allergy, not lactose intolerance.

5: What percentage of people worldwide are estimated to be lactose intolerant?
A: 25%
B: 45%
C: 65%
D: 85%
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Approximately 65% of people worldwide are affected by lactose malabsorption.

6: Which population is most likely to have lactose intolerance?
A: Northern Europeans
B: East Asians
C: Americans
D: Australians
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Lactose intolerance is most common among people of East Asian descent, with 90% lactose intolerance.

7: What adaptation allowed some populations to continue digesting lactose into adulthood?
A: Evolution of lactase resistance
B: Evolution of lactase persistence
C: Adopting a lactose-free diet
D: Increase in milk allergies
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Lactase persistence evolved in several populations to allow the digestion of lactose into adulthood.

8: Which test is considered the most accurate for diagnosing lactose intolerance?
A: Stool acidity test
B: Hydrogen breath test
C: Blood sugar test
D: Skin prick test
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The hydrogen breath test is the most accurate test for diagnosing lactose intolerance.

9: Which of the following can help manage lactose intolerance?
A: Increasing lactose consumption
B: Avoiding all dairy products
C: Taking lactase supplements
D: Consuming large quantities of milk at once
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Taking lactase supplements can help manage lactose intolerance by aiding in the digestion of lactose.

10: Which type of lactose intolerance is due to injury to the small intestine?
A: Primary lactose intolerance
B: Secondary lactose intolerance
C: Congenital lactose intolerance
D: Developmental lactose intolerance
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Secondary lactose intolerance is due to injury to the small intestine.

11: Why is lactose intolerance NOT considered a milk allergy?
A: It is a genetic disorder
B: It is not an immune response
C: It only causes diarrhea
D: It is temporary
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Lactose intolerance is not an immune response, whereas a milk allergy involves the immune system.

12: In which type of intolerance do symptoms typically appear in premature babies and improve over time?
A: Primary lactose intolerance
B: Secondary lactose intolerance
C: Developmental lactose intolerance
D: Congenital lactose intolerance
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Developmental lactose intolerance may occur in premature babies and usually improves over time.

13: What is a common treatment for managing symptoms of lactose intolerance?
A: Eating more dairy
B: Physical exercise
C: Decreasing lactose in the diet
D: Increasing sugar intake
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Decreasing lactose in the diet is a common management strategy for lactose intolerance.

14: How can individuals with lactose intolerance still enjoy dairy products?
A: By drinking milk only at bedtime
B: Drinking plant-based milk alternatives
C: Avoiding all meals with dairy
D: Consuming more than their tolerance level
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Plant-based milk alternatives such as almond, soy, or oat milk are lactose-free and suitable for those with lactose intolerance.

15: Which dairy product usually has the lowest lactose content?
A: Cheddar cheese
B: Whole milk
C: Yogurt
D: Ice cream
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Hard cheeses like cheddar contain virtually no lactose after the aging process.

16: What genetic mutations are associated with lactase activity persistence in adults?
A: T/C 13910 and G/A 22018
B: A/T 12920 and C/G 21030
C: G/T 11910 and A/C 20018
D: None of the above
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Polymorphisms C/T 13910 and G/A 22018 located in the MCM6 gene are associated with lactase activity persistence.

17: When does the reduction of lactase production typically start?
A: During infancy
B: During late childhood or early adulthood
C: After middle age
D: At birth
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The reduction of lactase production starts typically in late childhood or early adulthood.

18: What is the medical term for when the small intestine produces little or no lactase enzyme?
A: Alactasia
B: Hyperlactasia
C: Hypolactasia
D: Sub-lactasia
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Hypolactasia is the term for the small intestine producing little or no lactase enzyme.

19: Which enzyme supplement helps lactose-intolerant individuals digest lactose?
A: Amylase
B: Protease
C: Lactase
D: Lipase
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Lactase supplements help to replace the missing enzyme and aid in the digestion of lactose.

20: How can fermentation help people with lactose intolerance?
A: By increasing lactose in foods
B: By decreasing the dairy content in foods
C: By breaking down lactose in dairy products
D: By avoiding fermented foods
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Fermentation can reduce lactose levels in dairy products, making them easier to digest for lactose-intolerant individuals.

21: What is a common complication associated with lactose intolerance?
A: Structural damage to the GI tract
B: Does not cause damage to the GI tract
C: Chronic kidney disease
D: Severe allergic reactions
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Lactose intolerance does not cause damage to the gastrointestinal tract.

22: Which population has the highest prevalence of lactose tolerance?
A: East Asians
B: Northern Europeans
C: Native Americans
D: West Africans
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Lactose tolerance is most common in people of European descent.

23: What adaptation in dairy production helps lactose-intolerant populations?
A: Adding more lactose to dairy products
B: Cultivating low-lactose dairy animals
C: Creating dairy products with reduced lactose content
D: Avoiding dairy entirely
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Many societies have adapted by making dairy products that contain less lactose than fresh milk, such as yogurt and aged cheeses.

24: What differentiates lactose intolerance from a milk allergy?
A: Lactose intolerance is an immune response
B: Lactose intolerance doesn’t involve the immune system
C: Milk allergy symptoms include only digestive problems
D: Both are treated by consuming more dairy
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Lactose intolerance does not involve the immune system, whereas a milk allergy is an immune response to milk proteins.

25: Which test for lactose intolerance might involve the detection of hydrogen on a patient’s breath?
A: Stool acidity test
B: Lactose tolerance test
C: Hydrogen breath test
D: Genetic test
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: The hydrogen breath test measures hydrogen levels in the breath, which indicates lactose malabsorption.

26: Which type of milk may be easier for lactose-intolerant individuals to tolerate?
A: Whole milk
B: Reduced-fat milk
C: Lactose-free milk
D: Raw milk
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Lactose-free milk has the lactose removed or broken down, making it suitable for individuals with lactose intolerance.

27: What historical change led to the evolution of lactase persistence in some cultures?
A: Industrialization
B: The domestication of dairy animals
C: The invention of refrigeration
D: Increased urbanization
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The evolution of lactase persistence likely occurred as an adaptation to the domestication of dairy animals around 10,000 years ago.

28: Why might an individual with lactose intolerance have a substantially lower than normal blood glucose increase after consuming lactose?
A: Insufficient lactose consumption
B: Rapid digestion of lactose
C: Malabsorption of lactose
D: Increased insulin production
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Due to the lack of lactase, individuals with lactose intolerance cannot properly digest and absorb lactose, resulting in little to no increase in blood glucose levels after consumption.

29: Which of the following is an ingredient indicator that a food product might contain lactose?
A: Oat milk
B: Whey protein
C: Olive oil
D: Almond flour
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Whey protein is derived from dairy and may contain lactose.

30: How is the syndrome where the small intestine produces little or no lactase enzyme medically referred to?
A: Hypolactasia
B: Hyperlactasia
C: Metabolasia
D: Disaccharidase deficiency
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Hypolactasia refers to the small intestine producing little or no lactase enzyme, resulting in lactose malabsorption.

31: Which of the following mammals usually lose their ability to digest lactose after weaning?
A: Humans
B: Cows
C: Goats
D: Most mammals
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: Most mammals lose the ability to digest lactose after weaning when they stop producing the enzyme lactase.

32: What condition might produce similar gastrointestinal symptoms to lactose intolerance?
A: Common cold
B: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
C: Sprained ankle
D: High blood pressure
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Conditions like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) can produce symptoms similar to those of lactose intolerance.

33: Which enzyme acts similar to human lactase and is used in industrial lactose digestion?
A: Amylase
B: Protease
C: β-galactosidase
D: Lipase
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: The enzyme β-galactosidase, produced by fungi, functions similarly to human lactase and is used for industrial lactose digestion.

34: Which two genes are associated with lactase persistence in adults?
A: LCT and MCM6
B: MCT and LCM6
C: ACT and CCM6
D: MCT and ACT
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: The LCT and MCM6 genes are both involved in regulating lactase persistence in adults.

35: What adaptive mechanism might allow lactose-intolerant people to consume some dairy without severe symptoms?
A: Rapid digestion of dairy
B: Regular consumption of small amounts of lactose
C: Complete avoidance of dairy
D: Increasing fiber intake
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Regular consumption of small amounts of lactose can help adapt the colonic bacteria to digest lactose more efficiently.

36: Which traditional food culture has least likely to developed due to low lactose tolerance?
A: Fermented dairy products
B: Fresh dairy-based drinks
C: Cheese and yogurt making
D: Dairy-free cuisine
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Fermented dairy products like cheese and yogurt have lower lactose levels, making them more suitable for cultures with low lactose tolerance.

37: Which global region has the lowest prevalence of lactose intolerance?
A: Northern Europe
B: East Asia
C: West Africa
D: Southern Africa
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Northern Europe has the lowest prevalence of lactose intolerance due to a high frequency of lactase persistence.

38: Which population group is lactose intolerance least common?
A: Asian Americans
B: Northern Europeans
C: Hispanic Americans
D: Native Americans
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Lactose intolerance is least common among Northern Europeans.

39: Which symptom is NOT caused by lactose intolerance?
A: Diarrhea
B: Nausea
C: Hives
D: Abdominal bloating
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Hives are typically an allergic reaction, not related to lactose intolerance.

40: Which dairy product is less likely to trigger lactose intolerance symptoms?
A: Yogurt
B: Whole milk
C: Skim milk
D: Ice cream
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Yogurt contains bacteria that help digest lactose, making it easier for lactose-intolerant individuals to tolerate.

41: What evolutionary advantage did lactase persistence offer some human populations?
A: Improved vision
B: Improved immune response
C: Ability to digest dairy
D: Faster metabolism
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Lactase persistence allowed certain populations to continue to digest dairy products, offering nutritional benefits.

42: In which type of lactose intolerance is lactase production decreased after a small intestine injury?
A: Primary lactose intolerance
B: Secondary lactose intolerance
C: Congenital lactose intolerance
D: Developmental lactose intolerance
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Secondary lactose intolerance results from small intestine injury that reduces lactase production.

43: What does the enzyme lactase break lactose into?
A: Sucrose and fructose
B: Glucose and fructose
C: Glucose and galactose
D: Sucrose and maltose
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Lactase breaks lactose down into the simple sugars glucose and galactose.

44: Which type of milk is naturally lactose-free?
A: Cow’s milk
B: Goat’s milk
C: Almond milk
D: Sheep’s milk
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Almond milk and other plant-based milks are naturally lactose-free and suitable for those with lactose intolerance.

45: What happens to undigested lactose in the colon of a lactose-intolerant individual?
A: It is absorbed into the bloodstream
B: It remains unchanged
C: It is fermented by bacteria
D: It is converted into starch
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: In the colon, undigested lactose is fermented by bacteria, which causes symptoms like gas and bloating.

46: What is the genetic location associated with lactose persistence?
A: Chromosome 1
B: Chromosome 2
C: Chromosome 3
D: Chromosome 4
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The LCT and MCM6 genes associated with lactose persistence are located on the long arm (q) of chromosome 2.

47: What symptom might indicate lactose intolerance in infants?
A: Increased sleep
B: Stool acidity
C: Calm behavior
D: Rapid growth
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Stool acidity in infants can indicate lactose intolerance, as undigested lactose causes acidic stools.

48: How does regular dairy consumption affect colonic bacteria in those with lactase deficiency?
A: Increases the number of lactose-digesting bacteria
B: Reduces bacteria in the colon
C: Causes permanent lactose intolerance
D: Increases gastrointestinal inflammation
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Regular dairy consumption can promote a favorable microbiome, increasing the number of bacteria that can digest lactose.

49: In some cultures, how has dairy been made more tolerable for lactose-intolerant populations?
A: By heating dairy products
B: By fermenting them
C: By freezing them
D: By adding more lactose
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Fermentation reduces the lactose content in dairy products, making them more tolerable for lactose-intolerant individuals.

50: Which of the following is NOT commonly used as a milk substitute?
A: Soy milk
B: Oat milk
C: Almond milk
D: Goat’s milk
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: Goat’s milk still contains lactose and is not suitable for lactose-intolerant individuals unlike plant-based milk substitutes such as soy, oat, and almond milk.

51: What evolutionary phenomenon allowed multiple independent populations to develop lactose tolerance?
A: Convergent evolution
B: Divergent evolution
C: Genetic drift
D: Bottleneck effect
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Convergent evolution allowed several populations to independently develop mutations leading to lactose tolerance.

52: What form of lactose intolerance is an extremely rare genetic disorder present from birth?
A: Primary hypolactasia
B: Secondary lactase deficiency
C: Developmental lactose intolerance
D: Congenital lactase deficiency
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: Congenital lactase deficiency is an extremely rare genetic disorder in which little or no lactase is made from birth.

53: What factor contributed to higher rates of lactose tolerance in northern Europe?
A: Hot climate
B: Dairy farming practices
C: Limited water resources
D: High altitude
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Early adoption of dairy farming practices resulted in higher rates of lactose tolerance in Northern European populations.

54: What lab technique might be used for genetic diagnosis of lactose intolerance?
A: Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
B: Immunoassay
C: Western Blotting
D: Northern Blotting
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Genetic diagnosis often involves techniques like Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to detect polymorphisms associated with lactase persistence.

55: Which nutrient is often a concern for lactose-intolerant individuals?
A: Protein
B: Vitamin D
C: Calcium
D: Iron
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Avoiding dairy can lead to lower calcium intake, which is essential for bone health.

56: Which non-dairy food is a good source of calcium for lactose-intolerant people?
A: Citrus fruits
B: Leafy green vegetables
C: Bananas
D: Potato chips
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Leafy green vegetables such as kale and broccoli are good sources of calcium for people who avoid dairy.

57: What enzyme is produced industrially to treat milk directly?
A: Amylase
B: β-galactosidase
C: Protease
D: Lipase
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: β-galactosidase, produced by yeast, is used to treat milk directly to reduce its lactose content.

58: How might a lactose-intolerant individual still consume pizza?
A: Eating lactose-free cheese
B: Removing the crust
C: Drinking more water
D: Adding lactase supplements directly to the pizza
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Lactose-free cheese options are available that allow lactose-intolerant individuals to enjoy pizza without symptoms.

59: What does the process of turning milk into cheese primarily do to the lactose content?
A: Increases it
B: Decreases it
C: Stabilizes it
D: Converts it into fat
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The cheese-making process, especially aging, reduces the lactose content significantly.

60: Why should lactase supplements not be taken on an empty stomach?
A: They are ineffective without food
B: They need to act in acidic environments
C: They can cause nausea if taken alone
D: They lose potency quickly
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Lactase supplements work well in

Disclaimer: Please consult a physician before making any changes to your health regimen.

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