Lupine Trivia Questions and Answers

1: What family do lupins belong to?
A: Rosaceae
B: Asteraceae
C: Fabaceae
D: Lamiaceae
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Lupins belong to the family Fabaceae, which is also known as the legume, pea, or bean family.

2: How many species does the genus Lupine include?
A: Over 100
B: Over 199
C: Over 300
D: Over 400
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The genus Lupine includes over 199 species, with centers of diversity in North and South America.

3: What common name is used regionally for lupins in Texas?
A: Cowpeas
B: Bluebonnets
C: Buttercups
D: Marigolds
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: In Texas, lupins are commonly known as bluebonnets.

4: What part of lupins is typically bitter due to the presence of alkaloids?
A: Leaves
B: Flowers
C: Seeds
D: Roots
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: The seeds of lupins are typically bitter because they contain alkaloids.

5: What is the approximate height of herbaceous perennial lupine plants?
A: 0.1-0.5 meters
B: 0.3-1.5 meters
C: 2-3 meters
D: 4-5 meters
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Most herbaceous perennial lupine plants grow to a height of 0.3–1.5 meters (1–5 feet).

6: Lupins fall into which order of the plant kingdom?
A: Fabales
B: Rosales
C: Asterales
D: Lamiales
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Lupins are part of the order Fabales.

7: Which species of lupine is known for being a tree reaching up to 8 meters tall?
A: Lupine mutabilis
B: Lupine arboreus
C: Lupine jaimehintonianus
D: Lupine albus
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: The chamis de monte (Lupine jaimehintonianus) is a tree lupine species that can grow up to 8 meters tall.

8: What type of leaves do lupins typically have?
A: Pinnately compound
B: Palmately divided
C: Simple
D: Needle-like
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Lupins typically have leaves that are palmately divided into five to 28 leaflets.

9: What inspired the common names “bluebonnets” and “quaker bonnets” for lupin flowers?
A: Their leaf shape
B: Their fruit type
C: Their flower shape
D: Their seed color
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: The pea-like flower shape of lupins has inspired common names such as bluebonnets and quaker bonnets.

10: What characteristic of lupins allows them to improve soil fertility?
A: Deep root system
B: High leaf litter
C: Nitrogen fixation
D: Dense foliage
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Lupins improve soil fertility through nitrogen fixation, thanks to a symbiosis with rhizobium bacteria in their root nodules.

11: Which of these species is known for being invasive outside its native range, specifically in New Zealand?
A: Lupine texensis
B: Lupine arboreus
C: Lupine mutabilis
D: Lupine perennis
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The yellow bush lupin (L. arboreus) is considered an invasive weed in New Zealand.

12: What is a major use of lupins in agriculture?
A: Wood production
B: Dye extraction
C: Stock feed
D: Ornamentation
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Lupins are widely cultivated as stock feed, particularly for ruminants but also for pigs and poultry.

13: What element do lupins add to the soil, making them beneficial as companion plants in gardens?
A: Phosphorus
B: Calcium
C: Nitrogen
D: Potassium
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Lupins are good companion plants because they add nitrogen to the soil.

14: What percentage of the world’s lupin seeds are grown in Western Australia?
A: 50%
B: 65%
C: 85%
D: 95%
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: About 85% of the world’s lupin seeds are grown in Western Australia.

15: Which hybrid lupin is known as the rainbow lupin?
A: Lupine ×alpestris
B: Lupine ×hispanicoluteus
C: Lupine ×regalis
D: Lupine ×versicolor
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Lupine ×regalis, also known as the rainbow lupin, is a hybrid of Lupine arboreus and Lupine polyphyllus.

16: During which century did lupins get introduced to northern Europe for improving soil quality?
A: 17th century
B: 18th century
C: 19th century
D: 20th century
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: In the late 18th century, lupins were introduced into northern Europe to improve soil quality.

17: What significant cultural plant is referred to by the scientific name Lupine texensis?
A: The California poppy
B: The Southern magnolia
C: The Texas bluebonnet
D: The Eastern redbud
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Lupine texensis, commonly known as the Texas bluebonnet, is a significant cultural plant in Texas.

18: What adverse effect can certain lupin alkaloids have on livestock?
A: They improve digestion
B: They enhance growth rates
C: They cause poisoning
D: They increase milk production
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Certain lupin alkaloids can cause poisoning in livestock.

19: Which of these butterflies’ larvae use lupins as a food source?
A: Monarch butterfly
B: Mission blue butterfly
C: Swallowtail butterfly
D: Viceroy butterfly
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The larvae of the Mission blue butterfly (Aricia icarioides missionensis) are limited to lupins as a food source.

20: What is the risk associated with lupins and peanut allergy?
A: Pollination issues
B: Cross-allergenicity
C: Root competition
D: Leaf toxicity
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: There is a cross-allergenicity risk between lupins and peanuts, meaning people allergic to peanuts may also react to lupins.

21: How did Romans use lupin beans?
A: For animal feed exclusively
B: In construction materials
C: As a food source
D: To dye fabrics
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Lupin beans were popular with the Romans and were used as a food source.

22: What is the scientific name for the European white lupin?
A: Lupine albus
B: Lupine mutabilis
C: Lupine jaimehintonianus
D: Lupine angustifolius
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: The European white lupin is scientifically known as Lupine albus.

23: In what form are lupins often sold in jars in Europe?
A: Dried powder
B: Salty solution
C: Fermented paste
D: Candied
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: European white lupin beans are commonly sold in a salty solution in jars.

24: What fungi can colonize lupins, causing lupinosis in grazing animals?
A: Diaporthe phaseolorum
B: Fusarium oxysporum
C: Diaporthe toxica
D: Phytophthora infestans
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: The fungus Diaporthe toxica can colonize lupins and cause lupinosis when ingested by grazing animals.

25: Which continent is home to the oldest evidence of lupin cultivation, dating back 6,000 years?
A: Europe
B: Africa
C: Asia
D: South America
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: Evidence of lupin cultivation dates back 6,000 years in the Andes of South America.

26: What color are the flowers of the Texas state flower, the Texas bluebonnet?
A: Red
B: Pink
C: Blue
D: Yellow
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: The Texas bluebonnet has blue flowers.

27: What nutrient content makes lupin seeds particularly valuable as food?
A: High fat
B: High protein
C: Low carb
D: High sugar
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Lupin seeds are high in protein, making them a valuable food source.

28: Lupins are particularly important to which type of insect for feeding their larvae?
A: Bees
B: Moths
C: Butterflies
D: Ants
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Lupins are important larval food plants for butterflies.

29: What was the purpose of 20th-century German efforts regarding lupins?
A: To produce more vibrant flower colors
B: To reduce their toxicity for consumption
C: To increase their size for ornamental use
D: To make them drought-resistant
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: German scientists in the early 20th century attempted to cultivate a sweet variety of lupin that lacked the bitter taste, making it more suitable for human and animal consumption.

30: How is the alkaloid content of lupins typically reduced for safe consumption?
A: Genetic modification
B: Mechanical removal
C: Enzymatic treatment
D: Soaking and processing
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: The alkaloid content of lupins can be reduced through soaking and processing, making them safe for consumption.

31: Which part of Australia is known for being a major producer of lupin seeds?
A: Northern Territory
B: Queensland
C: Western Australia
D: Tasmania
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Western Australia is known for being a major producer of lupin seeds.

32: How were lupin seeds traditionally prepared by the Incan people?
A: Roasted and ground into flour
B: Boiled and dried
C: Eaten raw
D: Pressed for oil
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Traditional preparation methods by the Incans included boiling and drying lupin seeds to make them edible.

33: What is the scientific name for the Andean lupin?
A: Lupine albus
B: Lupine polyphyllus
C: Lupine arboreus
D: Lupine mutabilis
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: The Andean lupin is known scientifically as Lupine mutabilis.

34: For which purpose is Lupine angustifolius most commonly cultivated?
A: Ornamental garden display
B: Livestock feed
C: Medicinal uses
D: Textile production
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Lupine angustifolius is commonly cultivated for livestock feed.

35: What part of the lupin plant is most dangerous if colonized by the fungus Diaporthe toxica?
A: Leaves
B: Roots
C: Soil around the plant
D: Seeds
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: The seeds of lupins can become toxic if colonized by the fungus Diaporthe toxica, leading to lupinosis in grazing animals.

36: Why are lupins able to thrive in infertile soils?
A: Superior photosynthesis
B: Nitrogen-fixing ability
C: High water retention
D: Thick waxy cuticle
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Lupins thrive in infertile soils due to their nitrogen-fixing ability, which enriches the soil.

37: What was a historical misconception about the name “Lupine”?
A: It referred to their color
B: They were believed to deplete soil nutrients
C: They were seen as medicinal plants
D: They were named after the location they were found
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The name “Lupine” was historically believed to mean that the plants depleted soil nutrients, which was incorrect as they actually improve soil fertility.

38: Which hybrid of lupine is known for its strikingly varied floral colors?
A: Lupine ×hybridus
B: Lupine ×insignis
C: Lupine ×regalis
D: Lupine ×versicolor
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Lupine ×regalis, known as the rainbow lupin, is renowned for its varied floral colors.

39: Aside from agriculture, what is another popular use of lupins?
A: Pharmaceutical research
B: Garden ornamentation
C: Textile manufacturing
D: Biofuel production
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Aside from their agricultural uses, lupins are popular as ornamental plants in gardens.

40: Which butterfly species is extinct but had larvae that fed on lupins?
A: Monarch butterfly
B: Mission blue butterfly
C: Xerces blue
D: Gulf fritillary
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: The Xerces blue (Glaucopsyche xerces) is an extinct butterfly species whose larvae fed on lupins.

41: What genetic trait did Western Australian scientists focus on for lupin cultivation?
A: Flower color intensity
B: Disease resistance
C: Sweet gene to reduce bitterness
D: Drought tolerance
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Western Australian scientists focused on developing lupin varieties with the “sweet gene” to reduce bitterness.

42: What was the name of the first flowering lupin described?
A: Lupine albus
B: Lupine jaimehintonianus
C: Lupine arboreus
D: Lupine mutabilis
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Lupine albus was the first lupin species described with its characteristic white flowers.

43: In the Mediterranean diet, how are lupin beans commonly consumed?
A: As a dessert
B: In soups
C: As a pickled snack
D: In salads
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: In the Mediterranean diet, lupin beans are commonly consumed as a pickled snack.

44: Which part of the lupin plant is used to make aperitifs in the Middle East?
A: Leaves
B: Flowers
C: Seeds
D: Stems
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Lupin seeds are used to make aperitifs in the Middle East.

45: What is a traditional use of lupins by Native American peoples?
A: Spiritual rituals
B: Wool production
C: Food source
D: Building materials
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Many Native American peoples used lupins as a food source.

46: What is the chromosome number of lupins in subgenus Platycarpos?
A: 24 or 36
B: 36, 48, or 96
C: 48 or 72
D: 72 or 96
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The chromosome number of lupins in subgenus Platycarpos is either 36, 48, or 96.

47: Which medicinal benefit is associated with consuming lupin seeds?
A: Reduces cholesterol
B: Increases energy levels
C: Enhances muscle growth
D: Improves digestion
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Consuming lupin seeds has been associated with reducing cholesterol levels due to their high dietary fiber content.

48: In which climate can lupins be planted with good growth results in Australia?
A: Tropical climate
B: Cooler climate
C: Desert climate
D: Wetlands
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Lupins grow well in areas with a cooler climate, such as rural Victoria and New South Wales in Australia.

49: What attribute makes lupins prebiotic?
A: High protein content
B: High dietary fiber
C: Low carbohydrate levels
D: High fat content
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Lupins are considered prebiotic because of their high dietary fiber content.

50: Which species of lupin has yellow flowers and is invasive in New Zealand?
A: Lupine polyphyllus
B: Lupine albus
C: Lupine arboreus
D: Lupine jaimehintonianus
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: The yellow bush lupin (L. arboreus) is considered invasive in New Zealand.

51: What makes lupin seeds popular in gluten-free diets?
A: High sugar content
B: High vitamin C content
C: High protein and fiber content
D: Low fat content
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Lupin seeds are popular in gluten-free diets due to their high protein and fiber content.

52: Which continent hosts the most diverse species of lupins?
A: Europe
B: Africa
C: South America
D: North America
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: North and South America host the most diverse species of lupins.

53: In which ancient civilization were lupins known for improving soil fertility?
A: Greek
B: Roman
C: Egyptian
D: Chinese
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The Romans were aware of lupins’ ability to improve soil fertility.

54: How many subgenera are currently recognized in the genus Lupine?
A: 1
B: 2
C: 3
D: 4
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: There are currently two recognized subgenera in the genus Lupine: Platycarpos and Lupine.

55: What type of branching is dominant in subgenus Platycarpos lupins?
A: Basal branching
B: Dichotomous branching
C: Monopodial branching
D: None of the above
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Monopodial branching is dominant in subgenus Platycarpos lupins.

56: What significant adaptation allows lupins to thrive in barren soils?
A: Deep root system
B: High chlorophyll content
C: Symbiosis with Bradyrhizobium soil bacteria
D: Thick waxy cuticle
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Lupins can thrive in barren soils due to their symbiosis with Bradyrhizobium soil bacteria, which helps them fix atmospheric nitrogen.

57: What part of lupins were first cultivated by the Romans as food?
A: Roots
B: Leaves
C: Seeds
D: Flowers
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: The Romans cultivated lupin seeds as food.

58: What is the color of the lupin cultivar “My Castle”?
A: Blue
B: Red
C: Yellow
D: White
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The lupin cultivar “My Castle” is red.

59: Which country has the highest diversity of native lupin species?
A: United States
B: Australia
C: Canada
D: Mexico
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: The United States has the highest diversity of native lupin species.

60: What was the purpose of lupin cultivation in Egypt historically?
A: Medicinal treatments
B: Textile production
C: Nutrient-rich food
D: Dye extraction
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Historically, lupins were cultivated in Egypt for their nutrient-rich seeds, which were used as food.

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