Nurturing Seedlings Trivia Questions and Answers

brown handled knife on green leaves

1: What is the part of a seed embryo that develops into the shoot bearing the first true leaves of a plant?
A: Radicle
B: Hypocotyl
C: Plumule
D: Cotyledons
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: The plumule is the part of a seed embryo responsible for developing into the shoot bearing the first true leaves.

2: Which term describes seeds like pine that have more than two cotyledons?
A: Monocotyledons
B: Dicotyledons
C: Gymnosperms
D: Acotyledons
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Gymnosperms, such as pine, can have multiple cotyledons, unlike monocots and dicots.

3: What is the process called when cotyledons remain closed and develop long hypocotyls in the dark?
A: Photomorphogenesis
B: Skotomorphogenesis
C: Germination
D: Hypogeal germination
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Skotomorphogenesis or etiolation occurs when seedlings grow in the dark, resulting in long hypocotyls and closed cotyledons.

4: During what type of germination do the cotyledons stay below the soil surface?
A: Epigeal germination
B: Hypogeal germination
C: Skotomorphogenesis
D: Photomorphogenesis
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: In hypogeal germination, seeds develop with cotyledons remaining below the soil surface.

5: Which light receptors help seedlings sense light?
A: Cryptochromes and radicles
B: Phytochromes and hypocotyls
C: Phytochromes and cryptochromes
D: Plumules and cotyledons
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Seedlings sense light through phytochrome (red and far-red light) and cryptochrome (blue light) receptors.

6: What happens to cotyledons once a seedling begins to photosynthesize?
A: They continue to grow and develop
B: They become primary leaves
C: They senesce and fall off
D: They form new roots
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Once the seedling starts to photosynthesize, cotyledons eventually senesce and fall off.

7: What stimulates long hypocotyl growth and closed cotyledons in seedlings?
A: High intensity light
B: Darkness
C: Wind
D: High CO2 levels
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Darkness stimulates long hypocotyl growth and keeps cotyledons closed, known as skotomorphogenesis or etiolation.

8: What is the effect called when physical contact affects seedling growth?
A: Thigmomorphogenesis
B: Photomorphogenesis
C: Acclimatization
D: Skotomorphogenesis
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Thigmomorphogenesis is the process by which mechanical stimulation like wind affects seedling growth.

9: Which environmental factor has the most significant impact on the mortality of first-year seedlings?
A: Pests
B: High temperatures
C: Drought
D: Excess CO2
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Drought causes high mortality rates in first-year seedlings due to insufficient root development.

10: What phenomenon maintains soil contact levels for moisture in first-year seedlings?
A: Thigmomorphogenesis
B: Skotomorphogenesis
C: Frost heave
D: Photomorphogenesis
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Frost heave disrupts soil contact, affecting moisture levels and leading to seedling mortality in the first year.

11: What condition increases dry matter production in seedlings most effectively?
A: Short photoperiods and low light intensity
B: Long photoperiods and high light intensity
C: Long photoperiods and low light intensity
D: Short photoperiods and high light intensity
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Long photoperiods with high light intensity significantly increase dry matter production in seedlings.

12: What should be used to prevent transplant shock in seedlings?
A: High CO2 levels
B: Shade cloth
C: Vitamin hormone concentrate
D: High nitrogen fertilizer
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Vitamin hormone concentrates help prevent transplant shock in seedlings.

13: When do seedlings typically get transplanted?
A: Just after germination
B: When the cotyledons emerge
C: When the first true leaves appear
D: At the peak of photomorphogenesis
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Seedlings are generally transplanted when the first true leaves appear.

14: What term refers to monocotyledonous plants?
A: Plants with multiple cotyledons
B: Plants with two blade-shaped leaves
C: Plants with one seed leaf
D: Plants with no cotyledons
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Monocotyledonous plants have a single blade-shaped seed leaf.

15: What is the name of the developmental process that occurs in light and results in short hypocotyls?
A: Acclimatization
B: Photomorphogenesis
C: Skotomorphogenesis
D: Thigmomorphogenesis
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Photomorphogenesis occurs in light and results in short hypocotyls and open cotyledons.

16: What is a common pest that significantly affects seedling survival?
A: CO2
B: Heavy winds
C: Cutworms
D: Low nitrogen levels
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Cutworms are pests that can significantly impact seedling survival.

17: Which condition is linked to seedlings showing photomorphogenesis in the dark?
A: High nitrogen levels
B: Light stimulant hormones
C: Mutations in light receptors
D: Thigmomorphogenesis
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Mutations in light receptors can cause seedlings to exhibit photomorphogenesis even when grown in the dark.

18: What type of leaves do dicotyledonous plants have?
A: Single blade-shaped leaves
B: No leaves at all
C: Multiple cotyledons
D: Two round cotyledon leaves
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: Dicotyledonous plants possess two round cotyledon leaves.

19: What happens to dark-grown seedlings when treated with light?
A: They die
B: They show etiolation
C: They open cotyledons and turn green
D: They develop multiple roots
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Dark-grown seedlings, when exposed to light, will open their cotyledons and turn green.

20: Which transition switches the developmental program of seedlings to photomorphogenesis?
A: Reaching sufficient nitrogen levels
B: Breaking through the soil surface and contact with light
C: Achieving high humidity conditions
D: Experiencing temperature fluctuation
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Upon breaking the soil surface and reaching light, the seedling’s developmental program switches to photomorphogenesis.

21: What type of germination in seeds like broad beans keeps cotyledons below the soil surface?
A: Skotomorphogenesis
B: Epigeal germination
C: Hypogeal germination
D: Photomorphogenesis
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: In hypogeal germination, the cotyledons remain below the soil surface.

22: What is the primary cause of mortality in the first year of seedling growth?
A: Pest attack
B: Disease
C: Frost heave
D: Drought
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: The primary cause of mortality in the first year is due to drought, as young roots struggle to maintain soil contact.

23: When is the mortality rate higher in seedlings according to Eis (1967a)?
A: In dry habitats
B: In moist habitats
C: During nighttime
D: Under low light conditions
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: According to Eis (1967a), mortality rates are higher in moist habitats compared to dry habitats.

24: What does the term ‘etiolated’ describe?
A: Seedlings with green leaves exposed to light
B: Seedlings grown in high nitrogen environments
C: Long hypocotyls and closed cotyledons from dark growth
D: Leafless seedlings
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Etiolated describes seedlings with long hypocotyls and closed cotyledons grown in the dark.

25: What role do apical meristems play in seedlings?
A: They create the first true leaves
B: They protect the shoot tip
C: They give rise to root and shoot
D: They form cotyledons
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: The apical meristems in seedlings give rise to the root and shoot, enabling further growth.

26: What do acotyledonous plants lack?
A: True leaves
B: Cotyledons
C: Hypocotyls
D: Radicles
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Acotyledonous plants lack cotyledons entirely.

27: What does the opening of the cotyledons signify in seedling development?
A: End of growth
B: Start of photosynthesis
C: Onset of drought resistance
D: Root development initiation
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The opening of cotyledons signifies the start of photosynthesis, as they become the first photosynthetic organs of the young plant.

28: Which growth phase occurs while seedlings are pushing through the soil?
A: Photomorphogenesis
B: Thigmomorphogenesis
C: Skotomorphogenesis
D: Germination
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Skotomorphogenesis occurs while seedlings are pushing through the soil before reaching the light.

29: How did Eis (1967a) observe seedling mortality in dry habitats?
A: Higher than moist habitats
B: Lower than moist habitats
C: Equal in both
D: Negligible in both
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Eis (1967a) observed that seedling mortality rates were lower in dry habitats compared to moist ones.

30: What happens to seedlings under short photoperiods of less than 14 hours?
A: Growth continues as normal
B: Growth stops
C: Cotyledons expand
D: Roots develop faster
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Short photoperiods of less than 14 hours cause seedlings’ growth to stop.

31: Why do etiolated seedlings appear yellowish?
A: Due to high chlorophyll production
B: Lack of chlorophyll synthesis caused by absence of light
C: Excessive nitrogen
D: High light exposure
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Etiolated seedlings appear yellowish due to the lack of chlorophyll synthesis, which depends on light.

32: What adaptation do seedlings exhibit when exposed to long photoperiods with low light intensities of 40 lumens/m2?
A: Increased root development
B: Continuous “free” growth mode
C: Short hypocotyls
D: Yellow leaves
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Long photoperiods with low light intensities induce continuous “free” growth mode in seedlings.

33: Which nitrogen regime significantly increases root weight ratio in white spruce seedlings?
A: High-nitrogen
B: Medium-nitrogen
C: Low-nitrogen
D: No nitrogen
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Low-nitrogen regime significantly increases the root weight ratio (RWR) in white spruce seedlings.

34: What is an effect of carbon dioxide enrichment over 100 days in seedlings?
A: Reduced biomass
B: Stunted root growth
C: Increased leaf and total biomass
D: Reduced chlorophyll production
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Carbon dioxide enrichment over 100 days significantly increases the leaf and total biomass of seedlings.

35: When do cotyledons form the first photosynthetic organs of a young plant?
A: During germination
B: After the first true leaves appear
C: Upon breaking the soil surface and reaching light
D: During etiolation
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Cotyledons form the first photosynthetic organs upon breaking the soil surface and reaching light.

36: What are seedlings especially vulnerable to, which contributes to high mortality rates?
A: High light intensity
B: Close proximity to other plants
C: Spatial confinement
D: Pests and diseases
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: Seedlings are particularly vulnerable to pests and diseases, leading to high mortality rates.

37: What is the term for lightly brushing or subjecting seedlings to the wind to improve growth?
A: Skeletal stimulation
B: Photomorphogenesis
C: Thigmomorphogenesis
D: Auxin distribution
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Thigmomorphogenesis refers to the process of stimulating seedlings’ growth through mechanical means like wind.

38: What role do cotyledons serve in seedling development before senescence?
A: Form secondary leaves
B: Protect from pests
C: Provide initial energy reserves
D: Develop into roots
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Cotyledons provide initial energy reserves to seedlings before they start photosynthesizing and eventually senesce.

39: When is it beneficial to use high light intensity from 10,000 to 20,000 lumens/m2 during seedling growth?
A: In short photoperiods
B: To increase dry matter production
C: To reduce hypocotyl length
D: To prevent pest attacks
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: High light intensity during long photoperiods significantly boosts dry matter production in seedlings.

40: What interaction affects seedling growth by changing day/night temperature regimes?
A: CO2 and light intensity
B: Temperature and humidity
C: Temperature and light intensity
D: Wind speed and light duration
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Interactions between temperature and light intensity can affect seedling growth, such as a day/night regime of 28°C/13°C being effective at certain light levels.

41: What type of environmental conditions was linked to higher mortality in both mineral and litter seedbeds according to Eis (1967a)?
A: Dry habitats
B: Moist habitats
C: High altitude
D: Low pH soils
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Eis (1967a) observed higher mortality in moist habitats compared to dry habitats due to factors such as frost heave and competition.

42: What process occurs when cotyledons remain tightly closed and form an apical hook to protect the shoot apical meristem?
A: Photomorphogenesis
B: Thigmomorphogenesis
C: Skotomorphogenesis
D: Damping off
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: During skotomorphogenesis, cotyledons remain tightly closed and form an apical hook to protect the shoot apical meristem.

43: When did cotyledons split the seed coat open during seedling development?
A: During photomorphogenesis upon light exposure
B: During the first 24 hours after germination
C: Upon seed dormancy
D: Just after cotyledon senescence
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Cotyledons split the seed coat open and become green upon light exposure during photomorphogenesis.

44: What is the term for the first pair of true leaves in seedlings?
A: Hypocotyls
B: Radicles
C: Cotyledons
D: Plumules
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: The plumule is the part of the seed embryo that develops into the shoot bearing the first true leaves.

45: What can low nitrogen supply cause in seedlings?
A: Increased biomass
B: Stunted growth
C: Accelerated germination
D: Enhanced photosynthesis
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Low nitrogen supply can lead to stunted growth in seedlings.

46: Which term describes seeds with no cotyledons at all?
A: Monocots
B: Dicots
C: Acotyledons
D: Gymnosperms
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Seeds with no cotyledons are referred to as acotyledons.

47: What does thigmomorphogenesis refer to?
A: Growth change due to light exposure
B: Growth response to mechanical stimulation
C: Germination without cotyledons
D: Leaf formation process
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Thigmomorphogenesis refers to growth response to mechanical stimulation like wind or physical contact.

48: How does etiolation benefit seedlings in their natural growth process?
A: Increases chlorophyll synthesis
B: Protects the shoot apical meristem while pushing through soil
C: Boosts light absorption capacity
D: Enhances pest resistance
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Etiolation benefits seedlings by protecting the shoot apical meristem while they grow through the soil.

49: What is an example of germination that results in leaf structure visible in the seed?
A: Epigeal germination
B: Acotyledonous germination
C: Hypogeal germination
D: Thigmomorphogenesis
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Hypogeal germination, such as in broad beans, results in visible leaf structure within the seed.

50: How do seedlings grown in the dark appear compared to those grown in light?
A: Dark-grown seedlings are greener.
B: Dark-grown seedlings have shorter hypocotyls.
C: Dark-grown seedlings appear yellowish and elongated.
D: Dark-grown seedlings have broader leaves.
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Dark-grown seedlings (etiolated) appear yellowish and have long hypocotyls and closed cotyledons.

51: What conditions significantly increase the biomass of seedlings over 100 days?
A: High CO2 and high nitrogen levels
B: Low light and low nitrogen levels
C: Minimal physical stimulation
D: High nitrogen and short photoperiods
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: High CO2 and high nitrogen levels over 100 days significantly increase biomass in seedlings.

52: What happens to cotyledons when seedlings break through the soil surface?
A: They begin photosynthesis and turn green.
B: They close up tightly.
C: They fall off immediately.
D: They develop into roots.
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: When seedlings break through the soil surface, cotyledons open upon light exposure and begin photosynthesis, turning green.

53: How did cutworms and pillbugs affect seedlings?
A: Enhancing their growth
B: Protecting against diseases
C: Increasing mortality rates
D: Improving root structure
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Pests like cutworms and pillbugs significantly increase mortality rates in seedlings.

54: What happens in dicot seedlings growing in the light?
A: They develop long hypocotyls.
B: Their cotyledons remain closed.
C: They open cotyledons and develop short hypocotyls.
D: They remain yellowish.
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: In dicot seedlings growing in light, cotyledons open and develop short hypocotyls indicative of photomorphogenesis.

55: What effect do low light intensities have on seedling growth when combined with long photoperiods?
A: Stunted growth
B: Continuous “free” growth
C: Reduced chlorophyll production
D: Increased root length
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Long photoperiods with low light intensities result in continuous “free” growth of seedlings.

56: What strategy helps avoid transplant shock in seedlings?
A: Nitrogen-enriched soil
B: Providing shade cloth only
C: Using a vitamin hormone concentrate
D: Reducing daylight exposure
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Using a vitamin hormone concentrate can help avoid transplant shock when moving seedlings

57: Which photoreceptor responds to blue light in seedlings?
A: Hypocotyl
B: Radicle
C: Cryptochrome
D: Cotyledon
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Cryptochrome is a photoreceptor in seedlings that responds to blue light.

58: What is an example of a seed with visible leaf structure within the seed?
A: Sunflower
B: Pine
C: Broad bean
D: Corn
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Broad bean seeds show visible leaf structures within the seed, indicating hypogeal germination.

59: What is the impact of long photoperiods on dry matter production in seedlings?
A: Decreases production
B: Increases production
C: No impact
D: Reduces root growth
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Long photoperiods significantly increase dry matter production in seedlings.

60: Which type of germination occurs when seeds grow with cotyledons above the soil surface?
A: Hypogeal germination
B: Epigeal germination
C: Skotomorphogenesis
D: Thigmomorphogenesis
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Epigeal germination occurs when cotyledons grow above the soil surface and become photosynthetic organs.

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