Nutrigenomics Trivia Questions and Answers

1: What term is used to describe the science studying the relationship between the human genome, human nutrition, and health?
A: Nutrigenetics
B: Nutritional genomics
C: Epigenetics
D: Genomics nutrition
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Nutritional genomics or nutrigenomics explores the complex interactions between our diet and our genetic makeup.

2: In what year was the relationship between food and inherited genes first formally recognized?
A: 1999
B: 2001
C: 2005
D: 2010
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The term “nutritional genomics” was first expressed in 2001 as a formal study area.

3: Which subcategory of nutritional genomics focuses on how genes react to nutrients and express specific phenotypes?
A: Nutrigenetics
B: Nutrigenomics
C: Nutritional epigenetics
D: All of the above
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: Nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics, and nutritional epigenetics all address how genes interact with nutrients.

4: What practical application does nutritional genomics have regarding disease prevention?
A: Tracking the calorie count in foods
B: Assessing the specific nutritional needs for disease prevention and treatment
C: Developing new exercise plans
D: Inventing new medications
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Nutritional genomics allows for the creation of personalized health and nutritional interventions for preventing and treating diseases.

5: Which condition arises from a deficiency of vitamin C?
A: Scurvy
B: Rickets
C: Osteoporosis
D: Anemia
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Scurvy is caused by a lack of vitamin C in the diet.

6: What diet includes high consumption of fruits, vegetables, olive oil, and moderate amounts of red wine?
A: Keto diet
B: Mediterranean diet
C: Paleo diet
D: Atkins diet
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The Mediterranean diet, native to Greece, Italy, and Spain, is known for its health benefits and includes these foods.

7: Which dietary component in the Mediterranean diet has been linked to various health benefits, including prevention of metabolic diseases?
A: Butter
B: Olive oil
C: Lard
D: Coconut oil
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Olive oil, rich in polyphenols, is a staple in the Mediterranean diet and is linked to numerous health benefits.

8: What is Prader–Willi syndrome characterized by?
A: Insatiable appetite
B: Severe headaches
C: Immune deficiency
D: Skin rashes
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Prader–Willi syndrome is notably marked by an insatiable appetite and linked to specific epigenetic patterns.

9: Which compound found in the Mediterranean diet is known for its bioactive properties?
A: Lyinccopene
B: Turmeric
C: Polyphenols
D: All of the above
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: The Mediterranean diet includes various bioactive compounds such as turmeric, polyphenols, and lycopene, contributing to its health benefits.

10: What genetic disorder is connected to the body’s response to lipids in the development of coronary heart disease (CHD)?
A: Diabetes
B: Hypertension
C: Spina bifida
D: Apolipoprotein loci-related disorders
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: Differences in apolipoprotein loci alleles can influence the body’s reaction to lipid intake and are linked to CHD.

11: Which gene has been researched extensively in relation to obesity and dietary patterns?
A: FTO gene
B: APO B gene
C: BRCA1 gene
D: HLA gene
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: The FTO gene is widely studied in nutrigenomics for its role in obesity and how it interacts with dietary patterns.

12: What diet-related variation is associated with a higher BMI when consuming a high fat diet?
A: APO B SNP rs512535
B: BRCA1
C: HLA markers
D: LOX-1 gene
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: The APO B SNP rs512535 is linked to higher BMI in individuals with a high-fat diet.

13: What is an outcome of proper nutritional intake in parents to prevent genetic disorders?
A: Increased strength
B: Reduced risk of spina bifida in offspring
C: Enhanced vision
D: Better skin tone
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Proper nutritional intake in parents can help prevent genetic disorders like spina bifida in their offspring.

14: How can Phenylketonuria (PKU) symptoms be managed post-birth?
A: Medication
B: Nutritional intervention
C: Physical therapy
D: Surgery
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The symptoms of PKU, a metabolic disorder, can be managed and even reversed through dietary nutritional intervention.

15: Which study area focuses on the connection between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and diseases?
A: Molecular biology
B: Nutrigenetics
C: Pathology
D: Pharmacology
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Nutrigenetics examines how individual SNPs can influence disease risks and responses to dietary components.

16: What type of diet is recommended to decrease the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD)?
A: High-sugar diet
B: Low-fat diet
C: High-protein diet
D: Low-carb diet
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: A low-fat diet has been shown to reduce the risk of CHD across various populations.

17: Which disorder is primarily characterized by genetic variation influencing dietary response to lipids?
A: Osteoporosis
B: Diabetes Mellitus
C: Coronary Heart Disease
D: Anemia
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) can be influenced by genetic variations affecting lipid metabolism.

18: How does obesity research in nutritional genomics help individuals?
A: By proposing universal diet plans
B: By suggesting personalized dietary changes
C: By creating new fitness equipment
D: By pooling massive genetic data
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Nutritional genomics aims to propose personalized dietary changes based on genetic factors to help prevent or reduce obesity.

19: What causes the inactivation of maternal loci in Prader–Willi syndrome?
A: Over methylation
B: Deletion of paternal genes
C: Viral infection
D: Protein deficiency
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Prader–Willi syndrome involves the over methylation of maternal loci, contributing to its symptoms.

20: What is the primary source of polyphenols in the Mediterranean diet?
A: Milk
B: Meat
C: Extra virgin olive oil
D: Fish
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Extra virgin olive oil is a primary source of polyphenols, contributing significantly to the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet.

21: What is a benefit of the Mediterranean diet as indicated by nutritional genomics studies?
A: Increased muscle mass
B: Decreased mortality rate
C: Enhanced cognitive function
D: Improved vision
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Studies have shown that the Mediterranean diet is linked to a decreased mortality rate due to its protective agents against various diseases.

22: Which vitamin deficiency leads to the condition known as scurvy?
A: Vitamin A
B: Vitamin B12
C: Vitamin C
D: Vitamin D
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Scurvy is caused by a deficiency in vitamin C.

23: How can gene expression be influenced, according to nutritional epigenetics?
A: Through exercise alone
B: By dietary compounds
C: By climate change
D: Through social interactions
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Nutritional epigenetics studies how dietary compounds can influence gene expression and health outcomes.

24: What type of diet is the Mediterranean diet primarily known for?
A: High-fat, low-protein diet
B: Low-carb, high-sugar diet
C: Balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and healthy fats
D: High-protein, zero-carb diet
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: The Mediterranean diet is balanced and rich in fruits, vegetables, and healthy fats like olive oil.

25: What disorder benefits from nutritional correction in terms of obesity, coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, and diabetes mellitus type 1?
A: Alzheimer’s disease
B: Genetic-related disorders
C: Muscular dystrophy
D: Common cold
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Genetic-related disorders such as obesity, CHD, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus type 1 can benefit from nutritional correction.

26: What is Curcuma longa commonly known as?
A: Cinnamon
B: Turmeric
C: Ginger
D: Saffron
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Curcuma longa is commonly known as turmeric, which is a staple in the Mediterranean diet.

27: What is a distinguishing feature of Prader–Willi syndrome?
A: Extreme muscle growth
B: Insatiable appetite
C: Rapid hair loss
D: Severe allergic reactions
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Prader–Willi syndrome is notably characterized by an insatiable appetite.

28: Why is personalized nutrition important in the context of nutritional genomics?
A: To save time
B: To tailor dietary interventions based on individual genetic makeup
C: To eliminate the need for exercise
D: To create universal meal plans
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Personalized nutrition helps tailor dietary interventions to an individual’s unique genetic makeup.

29: What health condition can be managed with the right maternal nutritional intake before and during pregnancy?
A: Common cold
B: Spina bifida
C: Asthma
D: Flu
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Proper maternal nutritional intake can help manage and prevent spina bifida in offspring.

30: Where does the Mediterranean diet predominantly come from?
A: North America
B: East Asia
C: Greece, Italy, and Spain
D: Northern Europe
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: The Mediterranean diet originates from Greece, Italy, and Spain, known for their specific dietary patterns.

31: What type of genetic disorder is phenylketonuria (PKU)?
A: Autosomal dominant
B: Autosomal recessive
C: X-linked
D: Y-linked
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: PKU is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that can be managed with nutritional interventions.

32: Which genotype in the FTO gene is associated with a higher body mass index (BMI)?
A: AA
B: TT
C: CC
D: GG
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Individuals with the AA genotype in the FTO gene are associated with a higher BMI, especially with high-fat diets.

33: What modification prevents angiogenesis as suggested by the Mediterranean diet’s dietary compounds?
A: Increased cell replication
B: Reduced DNA mutations
C: Influence on cellular and molecular functions
D: Enhanced nerve growth
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Compounds in the Mediterranean diet influence cellular and molecular functions to prevent angiogenesis and other diseases.

34: What does nutrigenomics specifically aim to assess and recommend?
A: Universal drug prescriptions
B: Personalized health and nutrient intake
C: Group fitness classes
D: Standardized nutritional guidelines
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Nutrigenomics assesses individual genetic profiles to recommend personalized health and nutrient intake plans.

35: What genetic disorder is associated with both spina bifida and alcoholism?
A: Asthma
B: Diabetes
C: Phenylketonuria
D: None of the above
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: Spina bifida and phenylketonuria are different genetic-related disorders discussed in the context of nutritional genomics.

36: What effect can maternal over-methylation have on offspring?
A: More muscle mass
B: Heightened cognitive skills
C: Inactivation of certain genes
D: Accelerated aging
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Over-methylation in maternal genes can lead to the inactivation of specific loci, as seen in Prader–Willi syndrome.

37: Which dietary compound in the Mediterranean diet has anti-inflammatory properties?
A: Lycopene
B: Resveratrol
C: Quercetin
D: All of the above
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: Lycopene, resveratrol, and quercetin, found in the Mediterranean diet, have anti-inflammatory properties.

38: What percentage of the Mediterranean diet is primarily made up of plant-based foods?
A: 10%
B: 30%
C: 50%
D: 80%
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: The Mediterranean diet largely consists of plant-based foods, making up about 80% of the diet.

39: Which vitamin is crucial in preventing scurvy?
A: Vitamin B6
B: Vitamin B12
C: Vitamin C
D: Vitamin E
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Vitamin C is critical in preventing scurvy, a disease resulting from its deficiency.

40: Why are the interactions between diet and genes so essential in preventing diseases?
A: Because they determine exercise routines
B: Because they influence pub trivia performance
C: Because they provide tailored preventive measures
D: Because they offer standardized dietary plans
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Understanding diet-gene interactions provides tailored preventive measures for diseases, enhancing health outcomes.

41: What percentage of energy intake is regarded as a high fat diet when linked to genetic obesity factors?
A: <20% B: <25% C: >35%
D: >50%
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: A diet with more than 35% of energy intake from fat is considered high and linked to genetic factors influencing obesity.

42: How can phenotypic variations within a population affect nutritional interventions?
A: Through universal diets
B: By necessitating personalized approaches
C: By ignoring genetic differences
D: By increasing hunger sensations
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Phenotypic variations necessitate personalized nutritional interventions to address individual dietary needs accurately.

43: What is a practical application of nutritional genomics in diabetes management?
A: Universal insulin dosage
B: Personalized dietary recommendations
C: Consistent sugar intake
D: Standardized meal plans
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Nutritional genomics provides personalized dietary recommendations to manage and prevent diabetes effectively.

44: How does a high intake of dietary polyphenols benefit health?
A: By promoting angiogenesis
B: By enhancing muscle fatigue
C: By reducing inflammation
D: By slowing cognitive function
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Dietary polyphenols reduce inflammation, contributing to various health benefits.

45: What is a key goal of preventive health in nutritional science?
A: Identifying harmful foods
B: Developing exercise plans
C: Finding nutrients that raise or lower disease risks
D: Increasing calorie counts
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Preventive health in nutritional science aims to identify nutrients or foods that influence disease risks.

46: Which Mediterranean diet component is suggested to interact with gene expression to prevent neurodegenerative diseases?
A: Red meat
B: Whole grains
C: Bioactive compounds
D: Dairy products
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Bioactive compounds in the Mediterranean diet can interact with gene expression to prevent neurodegenerative diseases.

47: Why is the study of single gene/single food compound relationships important?
A: For universal meal plans
B: For understanding specific dietary impacts on genes
C: For developing medicines
D: For general exercise routines
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Understanding single gene/single food compound relationships allows for insights into specific dietary impacts on genes.

48: What percentage of the Mediterranean diet involves the consumption of red wine?
A: 0%
B: 10%
C: 20%
D: 30%
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The Mediterranean diet includes a moderate consumption of red wine, around 10%.

49: How does nutritional epigenetics influence the prevention of developmental diseases?
A: By modifying exercise routines
B: By altering gene expression through diet
C: By increasing medication intake
D: By reducing sleep hours
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Nutritional epigenetics studies how diet can alter gene expression to prevent developmental diseases.

50: What is an example of a condition that can be prevented with the right parental nutritional intake?
A: Common cold
B: Spina bifida
C: Acne
D: Increased appetite
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Proper nutritional intake in parents can help prevent certain conditions like spina bifida in their children.

51: What is the focus of nutrigenomics?
A: Universal dietary guidelines
B: Personalized nutrition based on genetic profiles
C: Standard meal plans
D: Exercise regimens
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Nutrigenomics focuses on personalized nutrition that takes individual genetic profiles into account.

52: What kind of interventions can nutritional genomics recommend to manage coronary heart disease?
A: Regular medication
B: High-calorie diets
C: Low-lipid dietary interventions
D: Increased salt intake
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Nutritional genomics may recommend low-lipid dietary interventions to help manage coronary heart disease.

53: Which component of the diet is linked to a decreased risk of various types of cancer?
A: High sugar
B: Processed foods
C: Mediterranean dietary components
D: Artificial sweeteners
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Components of the Mediterranean diet have been linked to a decreased risk of various types of cancer.

54: What kind of genetic disorder can be diagnosed and managed through nutritional genomics?
A: Phenylketonuria
B: Flu
C: Hypertension
D: Muscle cramps
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Phenylketonuria is a genetic disorder that can be diagnosed and managed with nutritional interventions.

55: How does obesity research contribute to the field of nutritional genomics?
A: By identifying universal diets
B: By studying diet-genotype interactions
C: By increasing food production
D: By developing exercise equipment
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Obesity research in nutritional genomics studies the interactions between diet and genotype to recommend personalized dietary changes.

56: What is the effect of dietary resveratrol found in the Mediterranean diet?
A: Increased muscle decay
B: Brain fog
C: Anti-aging properties
D: Rapid weight gain
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Resveratrol, found in the Mediterranean diet, is known for its anti-aging properties.

57: Which SNP in the FTO gene is associated with dietary pattern effects on obesity?
A: rs512535
B: rs9939609
C: rs1801133
D: rs738409
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The SNP rs9939609 in the FTO gene is associated with obesity and dietary patterns.

58: Why is polyphenol intake significant in the Mediterranean diet?
A: Enhances taste
B: Provides essential fatty acids
C: Reduces oxidative stress
D: Increases blood pressure
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Polyphenol intake is significant for reducing oxidative stress, contributing to the diet’s health benefits.

59: Which genetic factor is considered when studying coronary heart disease in the context of nutritional genomics?
A: Eye color
B: Hair texture
C: Apolipoprotein loci
D: Skin tone
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Apolipoprotein loci are genetic factors considered in the study of coronary heart disease within nutritional genomics.

60: What is the objective of preventive measures in nutritional science?
A: Increasing calorie consumption
B: Identifying dietary factors that impact disease risk
C: Standardizing national diets
D: Reducing exercise routines
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Preventive measures in nutritional science aim to identify dietary factors that impact disease risk to improve health outcomes.

Disclaimer: Please consult a physician before making any changes to your health regimen.

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