Philodendron Birkin Trivia Questions and Answers

1: What is the origin of the name “Philodendron,” derived from Greek?
A: Plant love
B: Tree love
C: Flower love
D: Leaf love
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The name “Philodendron” comes from the Greek words “philo-” meaning love, and “dendron” meaning tree.

2: How many species of Philodendron were recognized by the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families as of September 2015?
A: 389
B: 489
C: 589
D: 689
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: As of September 2015, the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families accepted 489 species of Philodendron.

3: Philodendron is the second-largest genus in the Araceae family. Which genus is the largest?
A: Anthurium
B: Monstera
C: Alocasia
D: Spathiphyllum
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Anthurium is the largest genus in the family Araceae, with Philodendron being the second-largest.

4: How do primary hemiepiphytic philodendrons start their life?
A: On the forest floor
B: High up in the canopy
C: In water bodies
D: Among rocks
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Primary hemiepiphytic philodendrons start life high up in the canopy before extending aerial roots to the forest floor.

5: What term describes philodendron’s growth towards darker areas to find a tree?
A: Phototropism
B: Hydrotropism
C: Scototropism
D: Geotropism
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Scototropism describes the habit of philodendrons growing toward darker areas to locate a tree.

6: Philodendrons can exhibit several growth forms. Which form is least common for them?
A: Epiphytic
B: Hemiepiphytic
C: Terrestrial
D: Aquatic
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: While philodendrons are often epiphytic, hemiepiphytic, or terrestrial, they are rarely aquatic.

7: What are aerial roots in philodendrons primarily used for?
A: Absorbing light
B: Attachment and nutrient collection
C: Flower production
D: Seed dispersal
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Aerial roots in philodendrons serve to attach the plant to surfaces and collect water and nutrients.

8: Which type of philodendron changes from juvenile to adult leaves with a noticeable transformation called metamorphosis?
A: Vining philodendrons
B: Primary hemiepiphytes
C: Secondary hemiepiphytes
D: Terrestrial philodendrons
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Primary hemiepiphytic philodendrons exhibit a distinct change from juvenile to adult leaves called metamorphosis.

9: What are cataphylls in philodendrons?
A: Modified roots
B: Protective modified leaves
C: Specialized flower petals
D: Nutrient storage tissues
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Cataphylls are modified leaves in philodendrons that protect newly forming leaves.

10: What substance do some philodendrons produce to attract ants for a symbiotic relationship?
A: Pollen
B: Nectar
C: Resin
D: Sap
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Some philodendrons have extrafloral nectaries that produce nectar to attract ants for mutual protection and nutrient exchange.

11: Which beetles are primarily involved in the pollination of philodendrons?
A: Rutelinae and Dynastinae beetles
B: Ladybugs
C: Honey bees
D: Monarch butterflies
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Rutelinae and Dynastinae beetles are primary pollinators for many philodendron species.

12: What is the purpose of philodendron thermogenesis during pollination?
A: Keeps the plant warm
B: Attracts beetles and increases their activity
C: Heats the soil around the plant
D: Deters herbivores
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Thermogenesis increases beetle activity, aiding in the pollination process.

13: What is the typical structure produced by philodendrons for reproduction called?
A: Raceme
B: Inflorescence
C: Panicle
D: Corymb
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Philodendrons produce an inflorescence, which includes a spathe and a spadix for reproduction.

14: What kind of fruit do philodendrons produce?
A: Capsules
B: Nuts
C: Berries
D: Drupes
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Philodendrons produce berries as their fruit.

15: What taste is associated with philodendron berries despite their oxalate content?
A: Apple-like
B: Banana-like
C: Citrus-like
D: Grape-like
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The berries of some philodendron species have a taste akin to bananas, although they also contain calcium oxalate crystals.

16: Which animal is known to eat philodendron leaves in the forests of Venezuela?
A: Jaguars
B: Toucans
C: Red howler monkeys
D: Sloths
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Venezuelan red howler monkeys are known to include philodendron leaves in their diet.

17: How do some Amazonian tribes use Philodendron craspedodromum to catch fish?
A: As bait
B: By fermenting leaves to poison and stun fish
C: To create nets
D: To camouflage themselves
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: They use fermented philodendron leaves to poison the water, stunning the fish and making them easy to catch.

18: What is the term for the transformation from juvenile to adult leaves in philodendrons?
A: Metamorphosis
B: Metabolism
C: Metaplasia
D: Metagenesis
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: The transformation from juvenile to adult leaves in philodendrons is called metamorphosis.

19: Who first collected philodendrons from the wild in 1644?
A: Heinrich Schott
B: Georg Marcgraf
C: Charles Plumier
D: N.J. Jacquin
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Georg Marcgraf is known to have first collected philodendrons from the wild in 1644.

20: What triggers the switch from juvenile to adult leaves in primary hemiepiphytic philodendrons?
A: Reaching a certain soil moisture level
B: Reaching the forest floor or height in the canopy
C: Exposure to full sunlight
D: Changes in temperature
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Primary hemiepiphytic philodendrons switch from juvenile to adult leaves upon reaching the forest floor or a certain height in the canopy.

21: What unique quality do philodendron leaves exhibit in their lifecycle?
A: Consistently small size
B: Uniform shape and color
C: Variability in forms from juvenile to adult stages
D: Presence of thorns
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Philodendron leaves exhibit variability in forms, changing from juvenile to adult stages.

22: Why are philodendrons sometimes difficult to classify taxonomically?
A: Their flowers are not visible
B: Juvenile and adult leaves can look drastically different
C: They do not produce seeds
D: Their stems change color
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Taxonomically, philodendrons can be difficult to classify because juvenile and adult leaves can appear drastically different.

23: What is the scientific term for plants that grow on other plants?
A: Epiphytic
B: Aquatic
C: Mesophytic
D: Xerophytic
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Plants that grow on other plants are referred to as epiphytic.

24: Which insect is specifically attracted by the pheromones produced by philodendron inflorescences for pollination?
A: Butterflies
B: Rutelinae beetles
C: Honey bees
D: Moths
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Rutelinae beetles are specifically attracted to the pheromones produced by philodendron inflorescences for pollination.

25: What do eurytomid wasps do with philodendrons?
A: Pollinate the flowers
B: Lay eggs in the ovaries of the plants
C: Feed on the leaves
D: Use them for nesting material
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Eurytomid wasps are known to lay their eggs in the ovaries of many philodendron species.

26: What triggers philodendron thermogenesis?
A: Changes in humidity
B: Light levels
C: Concentrations of acetosalicytic acid in the sterile zone of the spadix
D: Soil nutrients
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Thermogenesis in philodendrons is triggered by concentrations of acetosalicytic acid in the sterile zone of the spadix, leading to heat production.

27: What pigment causes the red coloration in some philodendron spathes?
A: Chlorophyll
B: Pelargonidin
C: Anthocyanin
D: Flavonoid
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Pelargonidin is the pigment responsible for the red coloration in some philodendron spathes.

28: Which subgenera of Philodendron was proposed to be recognized as a separate genus in 2018?
A: Pteromischum
B: Meconostigma
C: Thaumatophyllum
D: Calostigma
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: In 2018, it was proposed that the subgenera Meconostigma be recognized as a separate genus called Thaumatophyllum.

29: What capability do philodendrons exhibit with their roots to facilitate growth in various environments?
A: Developing flowers
B: Adaptation to fresh and salt water
C: Producing both aerial and subterranean roots
D: Changing leaf colors
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Philodendrons produce both aerial and subterranean roots to adapt to various growing environments.

30: What are the inflorescence structures called that protect beetles attracted for pollination?
A: Staminodes
B: Bracts
C: Spathes
D: Sepals
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The beetles are often guided and protected inside the spathe of the inflorescence during pollination.

31: How long do philodendrons typically take to develop berries after pollination?
A: A few days
B: A few weeks
C: A few months
D: Over a year
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Most philodendrons take a few months to develop berries after pollination.

32: What is the primary use of feeder roots in philodendrons?
A: Stability
B: Nutrient and water absorption
C: Leaf formation
D: Flowering
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Feeder roots in philodendrons are designed for nutrient and water absorption.

33: Where can extrafloral nectaries be found on philodendrons?
A: Roots only
B: Leaves only
C: Various parts including stalks, sheaths, and leaves
D: Only inside the flower
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Extrafloral nectaries can be found in various locations on philodendrons, including the stalks, sheaths, and leaves.

34: What do beetles primarily use philodendron spathes for during the pollination process?
A: Nest building
B: Shelter and mating
C: Feeding on leaves
D: Pollinating other flowers
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Beetles use the spathes for shelter and mating during the pollination process.

35: What substance is consumed by beetles inside philodendron spathes?
A: Pine needles
B: Resins
C: Pollen
D: Nectar
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Beetles primarily consume pollen from the fertile male flowers inside philodendron spathes.

36: What is the largest genus in the Araceae family?
A: Philodendron
B: Monstera
C: Anthurium
D: Alocasia
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Anthurium is the largest genus in the Araceae family, with Philodendron being the second-largest.

37: What mutualistic relationship do some philodendrons share with ants?
A: Pollination
B: Protection and nutrient exchange
C: Seed dispersal
D: Water storage
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Some philodendrons have a mutualistic relationship with ants, providing them nectar in exchange for protection and nutrient exchange.

38: How do the primary hemiepiphytic philodendron aerial roots benefit the plant?
A: By producing seeds
B: By attaching the plant to other surfaces and collecting nutrients
C: By attracting pollinators
D: By storing water
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Primary hemiepiphytic philodendron aerial roots help the plant attach to surfaces and collect nutrients.

39: What type of reproductive barrier do philodendrons exhibit to prevent hybridization naturally?
A: Physical barriers
B: Geographic and time barriers
C: Chemical barriers
D: Mechanical barriers
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Philodendrons largely rely on geographic and time barriers to prevent natural hybridization.

40: What feature do beetles utilize to navigate towards a philodendron inflorescence?
A: Heat generated by the spadix
B: Bright leaf pigmentation
C: Vibrations emitted from the plant
D: Soil moisture
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Beetles can use the heat generated by the spadix (thermogenesis) to navigate toward a philodendron inflorescence.

41: What are the modified leaves protecting young foliage in philodendrons called?
A: Petioles
B: Cataphylls
C: Bracts
D: Sepals
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Cataphylls are modified leaves in philodendrons that surround and protect new forming leaves.

42: What does the staminodal region in philodendrons do?
A: Produces seeds
B: Separates fertile male and female flowers
C: Attracts pollinators
D: Stores water
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The staminodal region in philodendrons is composed of sterile male flowers that separate the fertile male and female flowers.

43: What are the primary structures on a philodendron inflorescence?
A: Sepals and petals
B: Spathe and spadix
C: Bracts and sepals
D: Stigma and style
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The primary structures on a philodendron inflorescence are the spathe and spadix.

44: What makes philodendron berries similar in taste to bananas?
A: The oils they produce
B: The presence of sweet fibers
C: Their sugar content
D: Fruity enzymes
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: The fruity enzymes present in philodendron berries give them a taste similar to bananas.

45: What insect also visits philodendron inflorescences but is not believed to aid in pollination?
A: Bees
B: Butterflies
C: Smaller beetles in the genus Neelia
D: Aphids
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Smaller beetles in the genus Neelia visit philodendron inflorescences but are not believed to be involved in their pollination.

46: How do philodendrons adapt to growing in nutrient-poor environments?
A: By having broad leaves
B: By producing extra aerial roots to collect nutrients elsewhere
C: By relying solely on rainwater
D: By growing flowers higher in the tree canopy
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Philodendrons adapt to nutrient-poor environments by producing extra aerial roots to absorb nutrients from various sources.

47: What characteristic aids philodendrons in climbing other plants or trees?
A: Leaf shape
B: Long internodes
C: Aerial roots
D: Short petioles
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Aerial roots allow philodendrons to climb other plants or trees.

48: What is the role of sterile male flowers in a philodendron inflorescence?
A: They produce seeds
B: They act as a barrier between fertile male and female flowers
C: They attract birds
D: They convert sunlight into energy
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The sterile male flowers act as a barrier to prevent self-pollination by separating fertile male and female flowers.

49: How do philodendrons achieve pollination?
A: By wind dispersal
B: By self-pollination
C: Through beetle pollinators
D: Via water
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Philodendrons achieve pollination through beetle pollinators attracted by pheromones and heat.

50: Where are the flowers of a philodendron inflorescence found?
A: On the spathe
B: On the spadix
C: On the leaves
D: On the roots
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The flowers of a philodendron inflorescence are found on the spadix.

51: What temperatures are ideal for growing philodendrons indoors?
A: 5-10°C
B: 10-15°C
C: 15-18°C
D: 20-25°C
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Ideal temperatures for growing philodendrons indoors range from 15 to 18°C.

52: How can philodendron pollen life be extended for hybridization purposes?
A: By drying it
B: By moistening it
C: By refrigerating it in film canisters
D: By mixing it with soil
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Pollen life can be extended by storing it in film canisters in a refrigerator.

53: What is the role of the resin produced by philodendrons apart from assisting with pollination?
A: Attracting birds
B: Protecting leaves from herbivores
C: Building bee nests
D: Absorbing moisture
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: The resin produced by philodendrons is known to be used by Trigona bees in the construction of their nests.

54: What is a significant cause of dermatitis from contact with philodendron leaves?
A: Pollen enzymes
B: Oils and fluids containing alkenyl resorcinol derivatives
C: Leaf surface proteins
D: Dry leaf particles
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Dermatitis from philodendron leaves is often caused by contact with oils and fluids containing alkenyl resorcinol derivatives.

55: How do philodendrons control beetle movement during the exit after pollination?
A: By releasing a scent
B: By manipulating the position of the spadix
C: By secreting sticky nectar
D: By opening and closing leaves
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Philodendrons control beetle movement through the manipulation of the spadix position, ensuring beetles contact the pollen as they exit.

56: What is a common pet symptom from ingesting philodendron leaves?
A: Aggressiveness
B: Loss of fur
C: Salivation and mild indigestion
D: Hyperactivity
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Common pet symptoms from ingesting philodendron leaves include increased salivation and mild indigestion.

57: When do male philodendrons typically produce pollen?
A: At dawn
B: During the night
C: Early evening
D: During female anthesis
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: Male philodendrons produce pollen during female anthesis to ensure cross-pollination by beetles.

58: What type of new leaves do cataphylls protect in philodendrons?
A: Adult leaves
B: Juvenile leaves
C: Flower petals
D: Seedlings
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Cataphylls protect juvenile leaves as they develop.

59: Which philodendron feature aids in identifying species despite leaf variability?
A: Root structure
B: Inflorescence characteristics
C: Leaf color
D: Stem thickness
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Inflorescence characteristics tend to be consistent and help in identifying philodendron species.

60: Which beetle genus is involved in pollinating philodendrons besides Cyclocephala?
A: Erioscelis
B: Harmonia
C: Dynastes
D: Neelia
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Besides Cyclocephala, the genus Erioscelis is also involved in pollinating philodendrons.

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