Protein Supplement Trivia Questions and Answers

a container of protein powder next to a spoon

1: What forms can protein supplements commonly be found in?
A: Pills, tablets, syrups
B: Chewables, lozenges, effervescents
C: Bars, powders, shakes
D: Drops, patches, aerosols
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Protein supplements are often available as protein bars, protein powders, and ready-to-drink protein shakes.

2: Protein supplements are typically made from which sources?
A: Fruits, grains, and dairy
B: Whey, plant, and meat
C: Nuts, seeds, and spices
D: Oils, extracts, and fungi
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Protein supplements are generally derived from whey, plant, and meat sources.

3: What type of protein supplement is partially digested through exposure to enzymes?
A: Concentrate
B: Isolate
C: Hydrolyze
D: Premix
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Hydrolyzed protein supplements are partially digested with the help of enzymes.

4: Which additive in some protein supplements aids in digestion?
A: Fiber
B: Vitamin C
C: Digestive enzymes
D: Caffeine
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Some protein supplements include digestive enzymes to help with digestion and absorption.

5: What effect does whey-protein supplementation have on overweight individuals?
A: Increases appetite and weight gain
B: Reduces body weight and total fat mass
C: Increases carbohydrate metabolism
D: Inhibits muscle growth
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Whey-protein supplementation in overweight individuals can reduce body weight, total fat mass, and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

6: At what protein intake level do gains in fat-free mass start to plateau, according to a meta-study?
A: Above 0.8 g/kg/day
B: Above 1.2 g/kg/day
C: Above 1.6 g/kg/day
D: Above 2.0 g/kg/day
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Protein intake levels higher than 1.6 g/kg/day do not significantly improve gains in fat-free mass in younger individuals.

7: What daily protein intake is recommended for older adults to maximize resistance training-induced gains?
A: 0.8-1.2 g/kg/day
B: 1.2-2.0 g/kg/day
C: 2.0-3.0 g/kg/day
D: 3.0-4.0 g/kg/day
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: For older adults, a daily protein intake between 1.2 and 2.0 g/kg/day or higher is recommended to counteract aging effects on muscle mass.

8: Which specific group of older adults may need to limit their protein intake?
A: Those with osteoporosis
B: Those with severe kidney disease and not on dialysis
C: Those with high blood pressure
D: Those with diabetes
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Older adults with severe kidney disease, particularly those not on dialysis, may need to limit their protein intake.

9: What does recent research suggest about the timing of protein intake for muscle gain?
A: It must be taken immediately post-workout
B: It should be spread out every two hours
C: It can be taken throughout the day or at one time
D: It should be combined with carbohydrate intake
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Recent studies indicate that protein intake for muscle gain can be taken either throughout the day or at one time, based on convenience.

10: How does regular consumption of oral protein-based nutritional supplements affect chronic kidney disease patients?
A: Lowers blood pressure significantly
B: Decreases muscle mass and strength
C: Increases serum albumin
D: Reduces inflammation markers
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Regular consumption of oral protein-based nutritional supplements can increase serum albumin levels in those with chronic kidney disease.

11: What is one of the potential benefits of protein supplements for individuals undergoing hemodialysis?
A: Reducing enzyme activity
B: Increasing pre-albumin levels
C: Enhancing oxygen absorption
D: Lowering serum glucose
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Protein supplements can increase pre-albumin levels in individuals who are undergoing hemodialysis, indicating improved nutritional status.

12: What is the purpose of protein concentrates in supplements?
A: To eliminate all fats and carbs
B: To compress the proteins into smaller pills
C: To retain some fats and carbs while concentrating the proteins
D: To enhance flavor and texture
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Protein concentrates retain some fats and carbs while concentrating the proteins into a smaller volume.

13: What trend is observed in muscle strength and size with prolonged strength training and protein supplementation?
A: Decrease over time
B: Increase in strength but not in size
C: Increase in both size and strength
D: No change
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Prolonged strength training combined with protein supplementation leads to increases in both muscle size and strength.

14: How does aging affect the efficiency of protein intake?
A: It enhances the protein metabolism
B: It reduces the positive effects of protein intake
C: It makes absorption quicker
D: It has no effect
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Aging reduces the efficiency of protein intake in promoting muscle mass and other positive bodily functions.

15: In what form are protein supplements commonly taken to enhance muscle protein synthesis throughout the day?
A: Large doses once a day
B: 30g servings spread out over the day
C: Just before sleep
D: Only post-workout
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Spreading protein intake with a maximum of 30g at a time throughout the day can achieve maximal muscle protein synthesis.

16: Which protein intake recommendation is likely for elderly adults with acute or chronic diseases?
A: 0.5 g/kg/day
B: 1.2-2.0 g/kg/day or higher
C: 0.8 g/kg/day
D: 3.0 g/kg/day
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Elderly adults with acute or chronic diseases may need higher-than-ADA protein intake recommendations, generally between 1.2 and 2.0 g/kg/day or higher.

17: According to studies, what is the relationship between protein supplementation and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight individuals?
A: Increased risk
B: No effect
C: Reduced risk
D: Unclear effect
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Whey-protein supplementation in overweight individuals may reduce the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

18: What did past studies indicate regarding the pre/post-workout timing of protein supplement intakes?
A: It is crucial for muscle gain
B: It has no significant advantage
C: It must be avoided
D: It is only necessary for elite athletes
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Past studies suggest there is no significant advantage to specific pre/post-workout timing for protein intake.

19: What body measurement may increase in chronic kidney disease patients following protein supplementation, although the certainty of evidence is low?
A: Blood oxygen levels
B: Mid-arm circumference
C: Bone density
D: Heart rate
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Mid-arm circumference measurements may increase following protein supplementation in chronic kidney disease patients, though evidence certainty is low.

20: At what estimated GFR must older adults potentially limit their protein intake due to severe kidney disease?
A: <50 mL/min/1.73m2
B: <30 mL/min/1.73m2
C: <40 mL/min/1.73m2
D: <20 mL/min/1.73m2
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Older adults with severe kidney disease and an estimated GFR of less than 30 mL/min/1.73m2 may need to limit their protein intake.

21: What does the term “isolate” in protein supplements refer to?
A: Proteins mixed with carbohydrates
B: Proteins and amino acids completely isolated, mostly leaving proteins and amino acids
C: Partially digested proteins
D: Proteins with added sugar
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: “Isolate” means proteins and amino acids are completely isolated, leaving mostly pure proteins and amino acids.

22: How does increasing resistance training help older adults in relation to protein intake?
A: It reduces the need for protein
B: It balances the aging effect on muscle mass
C: It increases fat storage
D: It decreases muscle utilization
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Increased resistance training helps counteract the negative effects of aging on muscle mass.

23: Why is a protein intake above 2.2 g/kg/day generally not recommended for those seeking to maximize strength training gains?
A: It can lead to protein toxicity
B: It does not significantly improve fat-free mass
C: It inhibits muscle growth
D: It causes weight gain
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Protein intake above 2.2 g/kg/day does not bring additional gains in fat-free mass compared to lower intakes.

24: What effect does protein supplementation have on individuals during the first few weeks of strength training?
A: Dramatic strength increase
B: No noticeable changes
C: Increased lean body mass
D: Improved endurance
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: During the first few weeks of strength training, protein supplementation does not influence changes in muscle strength and lean body mass.

25: Which protein supplement variant includes the presence of some fat and carbs?
A: Isolate
B: Hydrolyze
C: Concentrate
D: Post-Workout Mix
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Concentrates include some fats and carbs while still concentrating the proteins.

26: What is recommended protein intake for those seeking to maximize resistance training gains in younger individuals?
A: 1.0 g/kg/day
B: 1.6 g/kg/day
C: 2.2 g/kg/day
D: 1.2 g/kg/day
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Around 2.2 g/kg/day is recommended for maximizing resistance training gains in younger individuals.

27: Which of the following groups benefits the least from higher protein intake recommendations?
A: Elderly adults
B: Young athletes
C: Older adults with severe kidney disease
D: Sedentary young people
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Elderly adults with severe kidney disease may need to limit protein intake, making them an exception to higher protein intake recommendations.

28: How does a higher protein intake affect people aging under the influence of protein supplements?
A: Heightens muscle breakage
B: Offsets muscle loss
C: Leads to increased fat retention
D: Has no effect
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Higher protein intake helps offset muscle loss due to aging, maintaining muscle mass better.

29: What body change occurs in healthy adults with prolonged strength training and protein supplementation?
A: Decreased muscle size
B: Increased strength without muscle gain
C: Enhanced muscle strength and size
D: Reduced bone density
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Healthy adults gain both muscle strength and size with prolonged strength training and protein supplementation.

30: Which benefit does protein-based nutritional supplements provide to people with malnutrition and CKD?
A: Increased serum albumin
B: Reduced kidney function
C: Lower hemoglobin levels
D: Increased insulin resistance
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Protein-based nutritional supplements can increase serum albumin levels, indicating improved nutritional status.

31: How may spreading protein intake up to 30g at a time benefit muscle synthesis according to research?
A: Maximizes muscle protein synthesis
B: Causes loss in muscle mass
C: Limits muscle repair
D: Decreases protein absorption
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Spreading protein intake with a maximum of 30g at a time can maximize muscle protein synthesis.

32: What effect can whey protein have apart from muscle gain and weight loss in overweight individuals?
A: Maintain hydration
B: Lower risk factors for heart disease
C: Increase metabolic rate
D: Enhance oxygen capacity
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Whey protein consumption can help lower the risk factors associated with heart disease in overweight individuals.

33: Why might renal function disorders in older adults require lower protein intake recommendations?
A: To prevent protein malabsorption
B: To avoid exacerbating kidney function decline
C: To ensure higher muscle mass
D: To improve bone strength
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Lower protein intake is often recommended to avoid worsening the decline in kidney function in older adults with such disorders.

34: What is the recommended protein intake for elderly adults to counteract the aging effect on muscle mass?
A: 0.8-1.0 g/kg/day
B: 1.2-2.0 g/kg/day or higher
C: 0.5-0.8 g/kg/day
D: 2.5-3.0 g/kg/day
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Protein intake ranging from 1.2 to 2.0 g/kg/day or higher is recommended to counteract muscle mass loss due to aging.

35: Which protein intake method did recent studies find convenient but equally effective for muscle gain?
A: Only pre-workout
B: One large dose in the morning
C: Either spread throughout the day or at one time
D: Combined with vitamins post-workout
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Recent studies suggest that protein can be taken either throughout the day or in one large dose, based on convenience, for muscle gain.

36: How can protein supplements potentially affect chronic kidney disease patients not on dialysis?
A: By raising cholesterol levels
B: By worsening kidney function
C: By increasing serum albumin levels
D: By reducing glucose efficiency
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Protein supplements can help increase serum albumin levels in CKD patients, indicating improved nutritional status.

37: Which enzyme is activated by protein supplements that can support muscle digestion?
A: Lipase
B: Amylase
C: Pepsin
D: Digestive enzymes
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: Digestive enzymes included in some protein supplements aid in muscle digestion and absorption.

38: During the initial weeks of strength training with untrained individuals, what effect does protein supplementation have?
A: Immediate gain in lean body mass
B: No significant change
C: Rapid muscle hypertrophy
D: Increased body fat
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: In the initial weeks of strength training with untrained individuals, protein supplementation does not significantly influence lean body mass.

39: Which protein supplement type retains some dietary fats and carbohydrates?
A: Isolate
B: Concentrate
C: Hydrolyze
D: Enriched mix
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Protein concentrates retain some fats and carbohydrates.

40: What are protein supplements made of that are targeted toward enhancing muscle growth?
A: Minerals and fiber
B: Vitamins and antioxidants
C: Proteins and amino acids
D: Enzymes and acids
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Protein supplements targeted toward muscle growth are primarily made of proteins and amino acids.

41: How does protein supplementation benefit muscle recovery post-intense workouts?
A: Decreases hydration levels
B: Increases fat storage
C: Supports muscle repair and recovery
D: Raises blood pressure
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Protein supplementation supports muscle repair and recovery after intense workouts.

42: What happens when protein intake exceeds 1.6 g/kg/day for younger individuals?
A: Prolonged recovery
B: Muscle hypertrophy
C: Plateau in muscle gains
D: Increased endurance
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Gains in muscle mass plateau when protein intake exceeds 1.6 g/kg/day for younger individuals.

43: Which population needs special guidelines for protein intake to avoid health issues?
A: Children
B: Athletes
C: Older adults with kidney disease
D: Pregnant women
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Older adults with severe kidney disease need special guidelines to avoid health issues related to high protein intake.

44: What is the ideal protein intake for athletes to promote muscle hypertrophy?
A: 0.8-1.2 g/kg/day
B: 1.2-2.2 g/kg/day
C: 2.5-3.0 g/kg/day
D: 3.0-4.0 g/kg/day
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: A protein intake of 1.2-2.2 g/kg/day is ideal for athletes to promote muscle hypertrophy.

45: How does spreading out protein intake throughout the day affect muscle synthesis?
A: It reduces muscle fatigue
B: It maximizes muscle protein synthesis
C: It increases fat retention
D: It extends muscle relaxation
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Spreading protein intake throughout the day can help maximize muscle protein synthesis.

46: Which specific dietary supplement supports reducing cardiovascular disease risk in overweight individuals?
A: Collagen
B: Creatine
C: Whey protein
D: Omega-3 fatty acids
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Whey protein consumption helps reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors in overweight individuals.

47: In chronic kidney disease patients, what do regular protein-based nutritional supplements potentially improve?
A: Bone density
B: Serum albumin levels
C: Kidney function
D: Insulin sensitivity
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Regular consumption of protein-based nutritional supplements can potentially improve serum albumin levels.

48: For older adults, which physical activity is suggested alongside higher protein intake to counter muscle loss?
A: Walking
B: Resistance training
C: Yoga
D: Endurance swimming
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Resistance training helps counter the muscle loss often associated with aging, and higher protein intake supports this effect.

49: What is the term for protein supplements that are partially digested with enzymes before consumption?
A: Concentrate
B: Isolate
C: Hydrolyze
D: Puree
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Hydrolyzed protein supplements are partially digested with enzymes to assist with absorption.

50: Why is protein intake higher than 2.2 g/kg/day not significantly beneficial for building muscle?
A: It leads to increased fat mass
B: It results in muscle fatigue
C: It doesn’t enhance fat-free mass gains
D: It reduces protein efficiency
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Intake above 2.2 g/kg/day does not lead to further improvements in fat-free mass gains.

51: What ratio of protein intake is recommended for older adults to minimize muscle loss due to aging?
A: 0.5-0.8 g/kg/day
B: 1.2-2.0 g/kg/day
C: 2.1-3.0 g/kg/day
D: 3.2-4.0 g/kg/day
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: A ratio of 1.2-2.0 g/kg/day is recommended for older adults to minimize age-related muscle loss.

52: What is one benefit of protein supplementation in older adults apart from muscle gain?
A: Improved cognitive function
B: Reduced inflammation
C: Increased serum albumin levels
D: Decreased blood pressure
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Protein supplementation can increase serum albumin levels, indicating improved nutritional status.

53: How can the timing of protein intake vary without affecting muscle gain according to recent studies?
A: Taken only at breakfast
B: Spread throughout the day or in one large dose
C: Before every meal
D: Only taken post-workout
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Protein can be taken spread throughout the day or in one large dose without affecting muscle gain.

54: What is the suggested protein intake for older adults with acute diseases?
A: 0.8 g/kg/day
B: 1.0 g/kg/day
C: 1.2-2.0 g/kg/day or higher
D: 0.5 g/kg/day
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Higher protein intake between 1.2-2.0 g/kg/day or higher is often recommended for older adults with acute or chronic diseases.

55: What results do protein supplements bring to muscle strength and size with prolonged training in healthy adults?
A: No change
B: Decreases strength and size
C: Increased muscle strength and size
D: Increased metabolism
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Protein supplements combined with prolonged training increase muscle strength and size in healthy adults.

56: Which of these groups might not benefit from high protein intake?
A: Elderly without chronic diseases
B: Young strength trainers
C: Individuals with severe kidney disease and not on dialysis
D: Middle-aged athletes
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Individuals with severe kidney disease who are not on dialysis might not benefit from high protein intake and may need to limit it.

57: Why should protein intake for older adults with a GFR <30 mL/min/1.73m2 be monitored?
A: To prevent protein deficiency
B: To avoid further kidney damage
C: To reduce muscle hypertrophy
D: To monitor blood sugar levels
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Monitoring is essential to avoid further kidney damage.

58: How does aging impact protein requirement compared to younger individuals?
A: Decreases the need for protein
B: No change in requirement
C: Reduces the efficiency of protein use
D: Increases carbohydrate utilization
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Aging reduces the efficiency of protein use, making higher intake necessary to maintain muscle mass.

59: Apart from muscle gain, what benefit do protein supplements offer to CKD patients?
A: Enhanced lung capacity
B: Increased serum albumin
C: Better skin texture
D: Lower blood glucose
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Protein supplements can help increase serum albumin, illustrating improved nutritional status in CKD patients.

60: What did a meta-study reveal about protein supplementation in trained individuals?
A: It has no effect on strength
B: It increases muscle hypertrophy and strength
C: It reduces fat metabolism
D: It raises blood pressure
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The meta-study found that protein supplementation promotes muscle hypertrophy and strength in both untrained and trained individuals.

Disclaimer: Please consult a physician before making any changes to your health regimen.

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