Synopsis of Some Genera of the Large Pyrenomycetes Informative Summary


This 1917 publication by C.G. Lloyd delves into the classification of large pyrenomycetes, focusing on three specific genera: CamilleaThamnomyces, and Engleromyces. Lloyd provides detailed descriptions of each genus, highlighting their unique characteristics and challenging existing classifications within the Hypoxylon and Xylaria families. He argues for the distinctness of these genera based on their structure, morphology, and spore characteristics. Throughout the publication, Lloyd provides historical context, tracing the naming and classification of these species through various publications and authors, often highlighting disagreements and inconsistencies in their understanding. He also offers speculation on the potential for further subdivision of these genera based on newly discovered variations and characteristics.

Lloyd’s work is valuable for its meticulous descriptions, detailed illustrations, and insightful analysis of the classification of these important fungal groups. It reflects the state of knowledge about these genera in the early 20th century and provides a foundation for understanding their continued study and classification today.

Key findings:

  • Camillea is distinct from Hypoxylon due to its different structural characteristics, including the arrangement of perithecia and the presence of a powdery mass in some species.
  • Thamnomyces is distinguished from Xylaria by its fruiting bodies, which are borne on the ends of branches, and by the structure of its perithecia, which form individual carbonous bodies rather than being imbedded in a stroma.
  • Engleromyces is a unique genus characterized by its massive, subglobose shape, alveolate exterior, and fleshy white stroma with layers of embedded perithecia.


  • Classification of Fungi: This publication provides a detailed look at the classification of large pyrenomycetes, emphasizing the importance of careful examination and analysis of their morphological and structural characteristics.
  • Evolution of Fungal Genera: The reader will learn about the historical development of our understanding of these fungal genera, tracing the various names and classifications proposed by different authors.
  • Significance of Observation: Lloyd’s work highlights the need for meticulous observation and analysis to accurately describe and classify fungi. His attention to detail and critical analysis provide valuable insights into these fascinating organisms.

Historical context:

This publication was written in 1917, a time when the classification of fungi was undergoing significant changes and debate. There was a growing interest in understanding the diversity and evolutionary relationships of fungi, leading to the development of new genera and the re-evaluation of existing ones. Lloyd’s work reflects this dynamic period and his own contribution to the ongoing discussion about fungal taxonomy.


  1. Camillea Leprieurii: This species is found in the American tropics, particularly in French Guiana and Brazil.
  2. Camillea Bacillum: This species is very similar to C. Leprieurii in shape, but much smaller with different spores.
  3. Camillea Mucronata: This species is known only from French Guiana.
  4. Camillea Labellum: This species is also known only from French Guiana.
  5. Camillea Turbinata: This common species is found throughout the American tropics and was originally classified as Hypoxylon turbinatum by Berkeley.
  6. Camillea Cyclops: This species is known from Brazil and has a unique feature of a circular, rounded depression on its apex.
  7. Phylacia globosa: This species has spores borne on filaments, but is likely a pycnidial condition of Hypoxylon turbinatum.
  8. Camillea Sagraena: This species is common in the American tropics and is characterized by its stipitate or substipitate growth and a white tissue in the center of its lower half.
  9. Camillea Bomba: This species is found in tropical America and is characterized by its globose, sessile shape and a hollow interior filled with spores and hyphae remnants.
  10. Camillea Globosa: This species is known from Colombia and is likely a sessile or stipitate form of C. Bomba.
  11. Camillea Poculiformis: This species is known from South America and is characterized by its stipitate, globose or obovate shape and a hollow interior with two distinct divisions.
  12. Thamnomyces Chamissonis: This species is found in Brazil and Africa and is characterized by its dichotomously branched stem and ovate, acute fruiting bodies.
  13. Thamnomyces Chordalis: This species is found in tropical America and is characterized by its slender stem and sessile, ovate fruiting bodies with slender apices.
  14. Thamnomyces Fuciformis: This species is known from Brazil and is similar to T. Chordalis but much larger with more slender and stalked fruiting bodies.
  15. Xylaria Setosa: This species is rare in Europe and is found on old sacks, matting, and carpets.
  16. Xylaria Adnata: This species is very similar to X. Setosa but grows closely adnate to rotten beech wood.
  17. Xylaria Fragilis: This species is known from old records in Europe and is likely the same as X. Setosa.
  18. Xylaria Hispidissima: This species is known from the East Indies and is likely the same as Xylaria hungarica.
  19. Xylaria Annulata: This species is known from the West Indies and is likely the same as Thamnomyces chardalis.
  20. Xylaria Annulipes: This species is known from Brazil and is the same as Xylaria marasmoides.


  1. Camillea Leprieurii: The spores are 25-35 mic long.
  2. Camillea Mucronata: The spores are 3.5-4 × 10 mic. long.
  3. Camillea Labellum: The spores are 30 mic. long.
  4. Camillea Turbinata: The spores are 6-7 × 16-18 mic. long.
  5. Camillea Cyclops: The spores are 8 × 12 mic. long.
  6. Camillea Sagraena: The spores are 6 × 12 mic. long.
  7. Camillea Bomba: The spores are 6-7 × 10-12 mic. long.
  8. Camillea Poculiformis: The spores are 9 × 14 mic. long.
  9. Thamnomyces Chamissonis: The spores are 9 × 20-28 mic. long.
  10. Thamnomyces Chordalis: The spores are oblong and arctuate.
  11. Thamnomyces Fuciformis: This species is much larger than T. Chordalis.
  12. Xylaria Setosa: The spores are ovoid, 10 × 16 mic. long.
  13. Xylaria Axillaris: The spores are 25-32 mic. long.
  14. Engleromyces Goetzei: The spores are 12-15 × 18-24 mic. long.
  15. Camillea turbinata: The plant can be 1 cm tall and broad.
  16. Camillea poculiformis: The stipe can be 8-10 cm long and 2-3 mm thick.
  17. Thamnomyces chordalis: The stem is long and slender, and the fruiting bodies are ovate.
  18. Engleromyces Goetzei: This is the largest Pyrenomycete known, with a fleshy white stroma 1½-2 cm thick.
  19. Xylaria setosa: The plant resembles carbonized horse hair and can be about a half inch high.
  20. Thamnomyces Chamissonis: The fruiting bodies are ovate and acute.


  • Pyrenomycetes: A group of fungi that produce their spores in perithecia, which are flask-shaped structures with an opening at the top.
  • Stroma: A fungal structure that supports the perithecia and can vary in size and shape depending on the species.
  • Perithecia: Flask-shaped structures in fungi where spores are produced.
  • Spore: A single-celled reproductive unit of a fungus.
  • Asci: Sac-like structures in fungi that contain spores.
  • Hyphae: The thread-like filaments that make up the body of a fungus.
  • Gleba: The fertile, spore-bearing mass within the stroma of some fungi.
  • Dichotomous: Splitting into two equal branches.
  • Sessile: Attached directly to a surface without a stalk.
  • Stipitate: Having a stalk.


  1. Camillea Leprieurii: This species has a cylindrical stroma with linear perithecia arranged in a circle near the apex.
  2. Camillea Turbinata: This species has an obconic or turbinate stroma with a raised central disc, and the perithecia disintegrate early, leaving a powdery mass of spores and hyphae remnants.
  3. Camillea Cyclops: This species has a short, cylindrical or semi-globose stroma with a circular depression on its apex, and its perithecia are arranged in a central bundle.
  4. Camillea Sagraena: This species grows densely caespitose, and its stroma has two compartments: a lower sterile portion with white tissue and an upper fertile portion with spores.
  5. Camillea Bomba: This species has a globose, sessile stroma with a hollow interior filled with spores and hyphae remnants.
  6. Thamnomyces Chamissonis: This species has a repeatedly dichotomously branched stem with ovate fruiting bodies, each of which is a single, carbonous perithecium.
  7. Thamnomyces Chordalis: This species has a long, slender stem with sessile, ovate fruiting bodies along its length.
  8. Thamnomyces Fuciformis: This species is similar to T. Chordalis but is much larger, and its fruiting bodies are more slender and have short stalks.
  9. Xylaria Setosa: This species has a densely fasciculate, filiform stem and sparse perithecia.
  10. Engleromyces Goetzei: This species is the largest Pyrenomycete known, with a large, subglobose stroma, alveolate exterior, and fleshy white stroma with layers of embedded perithecia.


This 1917 publication by C.G. Lloyd provides a valuable contribution to our understanding of the classification of large pyrenomycetes. His detailed descriptions, insightful observations, and historical context comprehensively overview these intriguing fungi. The reader learns about the key differences between these genera and the importance of careful examination of their structures, spores, and growth patterns. Lloyd’s work highlights the ongoing process of classification and the need for further research to fully comprehend the diversity and evolutionary relationships within this fascinating group of fungi.

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