# Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. LXX, Dec. 1910 A. Kempkey Trivia Quiz Questions and Answers

What city was the water tower built in?

• Vancouver
• Victoria
• Calgary
• Edmonton

Correct Answer Explanation: The paper describes the construction of the water tower in Victoria, British Columbia.

How many gallons of water could the tower hold?

• 100,000 gallons
• 20,000 gallons
• 50,000 gallons
• 1,000,000 gallons

Correct Answer Explanation: The paper states the tower had a capacity of approximately 100,000 gallons, a significant amount of water for its time.

What was the diameter of the tower’s inside?

• 22 feet
• 12 feet
• 32 feet
• 42 feet

Correct Answer Explanation: The paper describes the tower as having an inside diameter of 22 feet, making it a large structure.

What was the cost of the steel tank used in the construction?

• \$1,740.69
• \$17,400.69
• \$174,000.69
• \$1,740,000.69

Correct Answer Explanation: The steel tank was a significant expense at \$1,740.69, making the steel price a major factor in the project’s cost.

What was the cost of the concrete per cubic yard?

• \$5.126
• \$25.126
• \$125.126
• \$500.126

Correct Answer Explanation: The unit cost of concrete for this project was \$25.126 per cubic yard, a high cost compared to projects with better conditions.

What type of concrete mix was used for the dome and roof?

• 1:3:5
• 1:2:4
• 1:3:6
• 1:1:1

Correct Answer Explanation: A slightly stronger mix of 1:2:4 was used for the dome and roof compared to the tower and tank casing.

What type of concrete mix was used for the barrel of the tower and tank casing?

• 1:3:5
• 1:2:4
• 1:3:6
• 1:1:1

Correct Answer Explanation: The paper describes the mix used for the tower and tank casing as 1:3:5, providing a durable and strong concrete.

What was the total cost of the project?

• \$16,578.29
• \$6,179.41
• \$10,398.88
• \$412,000.00

Correct Answer Explanation: The paper states the total cost of the project was \$16,578.29, a significant investment for the city at the time.

What was the height of the tower?

• 109 feet
• 70 feet
• 39 feet
• 22 feet

Correct Answer Explanation: The tower had a height of 109 feet, making it a large structure for its time.

What was the thickness of the tower walls for the first 70 feet?

• 10 inches
• 6 inches
• 5 inches
• 2 inches

Correct Answer Explanation: The paper states the tower walls were 10 inches thick for the first 70 feet, ensuring structural integrity.

What was the thickness of the tower walls for the remaining 39 feet?

• 10 inches
• 6 inches
• 5 inches
• 2 inches

Correct Answer Explanation: The tower walls decreased to a thickness of 6 inches for the remaining 39 feet of the structure.

What was the approximate population of Victoria, BC in 1910?

• 35,000
• 100,000
• 500,000
• 1,000,000

Correct Answer Explanation: The paper states that Victoria had a population of approximately 35,000 in 1910.

What was used to form the curved sections of the tower?

• Tapered lagging
• Scaffolding
• Hoist
• Formwork

Correct Answer Explanation: The paper details how tapered lagging was used to form the curved sections of the tower. This involved cutting 2 by 6-inch pieces to a diagonal shape, creating two staves that were wider at one end than the other.

What type of forms were used for the tower’s interior?

• Tapered lagging
• Collapsible forms
• Hoist
• Formwork

Correct Answer Explanation: The paper mentions the use of collapsible forms for the tower’s interior. This allowed the forms to be removed in sections, providing access to the concrete for inspection and allowing the forms to be reused.

What was the primary material used to construct the tower?

• Steel
• Reinforced concrete
• Plain concrete
• Wood

Correct Answer Explanation: The paper emphasizes the use of plain concrete for the tower’s construction. Reinforced concrete was not as commonly used during this period.

What was the purpose of the steel tank embedded within the upper 40 feet of the concrete cylinder?

• To create a watertight seal
• To contain the water
• To prevent leakage

Correct Answer: To contain the water

Correct Answer Explanation: The steel tank, embedded within the upper 40 feet of the concrete cylinder, was designed specifically to contain the water.

What was used to form the bottom of the steel tank?

• Concrete dome
• Steel ring
• Reinforced concrete roof
• Steel tank

Correct Answer Explanation: A concrete dome was used to form the bottom of the steel tank.

What type of roof was used to cover the tank?

• Steel roof
• Wooden roof
• Concrete roof
• Concrete dome

Correct Answer Explanation: The paper mentions the use of a reinforced concrete roof to cover the tank, protecting the water from the elements.

What was the primary method used to construct the tower?

• Day labor
• Skilled labor
• Crane operation
• Machinery

Correct Answer Explanation: The paper states that the tower was built using day labor, a common practice for complex projects requiring specialized skills and close supervision.

How many coats of cement wash were applied to the exterior of the tower?

• One
• Two
• Three
• Four

Correct Answer Explanation: The paper mentions two coats of cement wash were applied to cover efflorescence and irregularities in the concrete.

What material was used for the plaster coat on the inside of the tank?

• Cement
• Fine sand
• A mixture of cement and fine sand
• Steel

Correct Answer: A mixture of cement and fine sand

Correct Answer Explanation: The plaster coat on the inside of the tank was composed of 1 part cement to 1-3/4 parts of fine sand to provide a smooth and watertight surface.

What was the primary source of water for the Victoria waterworks?

• Elk Lake
• Lake Superior
• The Pacific Ocean
• The Fraser River

Correct Answer Explanation: The paper states that water for the Victoria waterworks was drawn from Elk Lake, located approximately five miles north of the city.

What was the purpose of building the tower on the highest hill in the city?

• To provide a panoramic view
• To ensure adequate water pressure for all residents
• To showcase the tower’s architectural beauty

Correct Answer Explanation: The tower was constructed on the highest hill in the city to ensure adequate water pressure for all residents, a common practice in early 20th-century water infrastructure.

What was the primary function of the tower?

• To hold water for the city
• To provide a scenic view for tourists
• To serve as a landmark
• To house the pumps that moved water to the city

Correct Answer: To hold water for the city

Correct Answer Explanation: The tower’s main function was to hold water for the city of Victoria, BC, addressing the growing demand for clean water.

What type of material was used to construct the scaffolding for the tower?

• Steel
• Wood
• Concrete
• Aluminum

Correct Answer Explanation: The paper details the scaffolding used for this project as including wooden planks, ropes, and pulleys, a common construction practice at the time.

What was the primary reason for building the tower?

• To meet the growing demand for water
• To improve the aesthetics of the city
• To showcase new engineering techniques
• To create a new landmark for the city

Correct Answer: To meet the growing demand for water

Correct Answer Explanation: The paper highlights the need for expanded infrastructure, including waterworks, to address the city’s rapid population growth.

What was a common challenge encountered during the construction of the tower?

• Lack of skilled labor
• Limited resources
• High cost of materials

Correct Answer Explanation: The paper notes that bad weather and delays in steel delivery contributed to the project’s high cost.

What was a primary focus of the author in this paper?

• To detail the technical aspects of the tower’s construction
• To highlight the challenges of using concrete in construction
• To emphasize the importance of aesthetics in engineering projects
• To showcase the innovative use of steel in construction

Correct Answer: To emphasize the importance of aesthetics in engineering projects

Correct Answer Explanation: The author emphasizes the importance of considering the aesthetic preferences of the community when designing engineering projects, particularly in urban environments.

What did some engineers criticize in the paper?

• The lack of reinforcement in the tower structure
• The use of a smooth steel shell to contain the water within the tank
• The use of plain concrete in the construction
• The overall cost of the project

Correct Answer: The lack of reinforcement in the tower structure and the use of a smooth steel shell to contain the water within the tank

Correct Answer Explanation: The paper mentions that some engineers criticized the lack of reinforcement and the use of a smooth steel shell, expressing concerns that these choices could lead to future problems.

What did some engineers highlight in the paper?

• The tower’s unique aesthetics
• The challenges of building with concrete
• The cost of the project
• The difficulty of securing a contract for such a complex project

Correct Answer: The tower’s unique aesthetics and the difficulty of securing a contract for such a complex project

Correct Answer Explanation: The paper states that some engineers highlighted the tower’s unique aesthetics and the difficulties in securing a contract for such a complex project.

What type of deposit can appear on concrete surfaces?

• Efflorescence
• Pilaster
• Cornice
• Parapet

Correct Answer Explanation: The paper mentions a white powdery deposit called efflorescence that can appear on concrete surfaces due to moisture and salts.

What type of column is often used for decorative purposes?

• Efflorescence
• Pilaster
• Cornice
• Parapet

Correct Answer Explanation: A pilaster is a shallow, flat rectangular column attached to a wall, often used for decorative purposes.

What type of molding projects horizontally from the top of a wall or building?

• Efflorescence
• Pilaster
• Cornice
• Parapet

Correct Answer Explanation: A cornice is a decorative molding that projects horizontally from the top of a wall or building.

What is a low wall built on the edge of a roof or balcony?

• Efflorescence
• Pilaster
• Cornice
• Parapet

Correct Answer Explanation: A parapet is a low wall built on the edge of a roof or balcony.

What year was the water tower built?

• 1900
• 1910
• 1920
• 1930

Correct Answer Explanation: The paper was written in 1910, indicating that the water tower was built in 1910.

What was the year the paper was written?

• 1900
• 1910
• 1920
• 1930

Correct Answer Explanation: The paper was written in 1910, providing a historical snapshot of engineering practices and challenges of that time.

How many cubic yards of concrete were used in the construction of the tower?

• 100
• 212
• 412
• 612

Correct Answer Explanation: The total concrete used for the project was 412 cubic yards, making it a significant undertaking.

What did the author of the paper emphasize as an important factor in engineering projects?

• The use of new materials
• The cost of the project
• The availability of skilled labor
• The aesthetic preferences of the community

Correct Answer: The aesthetic preferences of the community

Correct Answer Explanation: The author emphasizes the importance of considering the aesthetic preferences of the community when designing engineering projects, particularly in densely populated areas.

What was a common construction practice during the early 20th century?

• Using reinforced concrete
• Utilizing cranes in construction
• Using day labor for complex projects
• Using machinery for construction

Correct Answer: Using day labor for complex projects

Correct Answer Explanation: The paper highlights the use of day labor for this complex project, a common practice during this period.

What is a lifting mechanism used to raise heavy objects?

• Tapered lagging
• Collapsible forms
• Hoist
• Formwork

Correct Answer Explanation: A hoist is a lifting mechanism used to raise heavy objects, commonly used in construction projects.

What are temporary structures used to hold concrete in place while it sets?

• Tapered lagging
• Collapsible forms
• Hoist
• Formwork

Correct Answer Explanation: Formwork refers to temporary structures used to hold concrete in place during construction, allowing it to set and harden properly.

What are the wooden planks used to create the surfaces of concrete forms?

• Tapered lagging
• Collapsible forms
• Hoist
• Formwork

Correct Answer Explanation: Tapered lagging refers to the wooden planks used to create the surfaces of concrete forms, often used to create curved or angled sections.

What is the base of a structure that rests on the ground?

• Tapered lagging
• Collapsible forms
• Sub-base
• Formwork

Correct Answer Explanation: The sub-base is the foundation of a structure that rests on the ground, typically made of concrete.

What is a common treatment used to finish concrete structures?

• Cement wash
• Efflorescence
• Pilaster
• Cornice

Correct Answer Explanation: A cement wash is a common treatment applied to concrete structures to improve their appearance and cover irregularities.

What is a significant factor in the cost of large engineering projects?

• The cost of labor
• The availability of materials
• The design of the project
• The location of the project

Correct Answer: The cost of labor

Correct Answer Explanation: The paper shows that the cost of labor was a major factor in the overall cost of the project, representing a significant portion of the total cost.

What is a primary consideration in the design and construction of water towers?

• The need for watertightness
• The aesthetic appeal of the tower
• The cost of construction
• The location of the tower

Correct Answer: The need for watertightness

Correct Answer Explanation: Watertightness is a crucial factor in the design and construction of water towers, as leaks can compromise the water supply and result in significant losses.

What is a common concern regarding the use of plain concrete in construction?

• Its lack of durability
• Its high cost
• Its lack of flexibility
• Its potential to crack and leak

Correct Answer: Its potential to crack and leak

Correct Answer Explanation: Plain concrete, without reinforcement, is susceptible to cracking and leaking, particularly in large structures like water towers.

What is a key aspect of understanding historical construction practices?

• Analyzing the materials used
• Examining the design choices
• Studying the cost of construction
• Investigating the engineering challenges

Correct Answer: Examining the design choices

Correct Answer Explanation: Examining the design choices made during a particular historical period allows us to understand the constraints, innovations, and prevailing engineering practices of that era.

What is a significant lesson learned from this historical paper?

• The importance of using reinforced concrete
• The need for careful planning and execution
• The significance of considering aesthetics in engineering projects
• The need to balance functionality and cost

Correct Answer: The significance of considering aesthetics in engineering projects

Correct Answer Explanation: The author emphasizes the importance of considering the aesthetic preferences of the community when designing engineering projects, particularly in densely populated areas.

What is a key takeaway from this paper about the construction of water towers?

• Water towers are expensive to build
• Water towers require careful planning
• Water towers can be built using a variety of materials
• Water towers should be aesthetically pleasing

Correct Answer: Water towers require careful planning

Correct Answer Explanation: The paper showcases the careful planning and execution required for a successful water tower construction, including considerations for materials, design, and construction methods.

What is a primary benefit of using collapsible forms in construction?

• They reduce the cost of construction
• They allow for easy inspection of the concrete
• They simplify the construction process
• They enhance the aesthetic appeal of the finished structure

Correct Answer: They allow for easy inspection of the concrete

Correct Answer Explanation: Collapsible forms allow for easy access to inspect the concrete after it has set, ensuring its quality and identifying any potential issues.

What is a common challenge faced by engineers during the construction of large concrete structures?

• Securing funding for the project
• Finding skilled laborers
• Obtaining the necessary materials
• Dealing with unexpected delays

Correct Answer: Dealing with unexpected delays

Correct Answer Explanation: Construction projects, particularly large ones like water towers, often face unexpected delays due to weather, material shortages, or other unforeseen circumstances.

What is a key element in the construction of a water tower that ensures its stability?

• The use of steel reinforcement
• The choice of concrete mix
• The foundation of the tower
• The shape of the tower

Correct Answer: The foundation of the tower

Correct Answer Explanation: A stable foundation is crucial for any large structure, particularly a water tower, as it ensures its stability and prevents settling or movement.

What is a common feature of water towers that helps prevent water from freezing?

• A concrete dome
• A steel tank
• A reinforced concrete roof
• A heating system

Correct Answer Explanation: A steel tank, often used within a concrete water tower, is less susceptible to freezing than plain concrete, helping to protect the water supply during cold weather.

What is a common method used to prevent water from leaking from a concrete tank?

• A cement wash
• A plaster coat
• A steel lining
• A drainage system

Correct Answer Explanation: A plaster coat, often applied to the inside of concrete tanks, helps to create a smooth and watertight surface, minimizing leakage and ensuring water quality.

What is a common feature of water towers that helps to protect the water from the elements?

• A concrete dome
• A steel tank
• A reinforced concrete roof
• A heating system

Correct Answer: A reinforced concrete roof

Correct Answer Explanation: A reinforced concrete roof helps protect the water stored in the tank from rain, snow, and other weather elements, ensuring water quality and preventing contamination.