Ultra-Processed Food Trivia Quiz Questions and Answers

a white plate topped with french fries next to a sandwich

Question 1: What classification system is used to define ultra-processed foods?
Answer A: FDA Classification
Answer B: WHO Classification
Answer C: NOVA Classification
Answer D: USDA Classification
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: NOVA Classification
Correct Answer explanation: The NOVA classification system groups foods according to the extent and purpose of industrial processing, providing a clear framework to identify ultra-processed foods.

Question 2: Which ingredient is commonly found in ultra-processed foods but rarely in home kitchens?
Answer A: Olive Oil
Answer B: Balsamic Vinegar
Answer C: High-Fructose Corn Syrup
Answer D: Whole Grain Flour
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: High-Fructose Corn Syrup
Correct Answer explanation: High-fructose corn syrup is a food substance rarely used in home kitchens but frequently found in ultra-processed foods.

Question 3: Which additive is often used in ultra-processed foods to make them more appealing?
Answer A: Salt
Answer B: Sugar
Answer C: Flavour Enhancers
Answer D: Black Pepper
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: Flavour Enhancers
Correct Answer explanation: Flavour enhancers are additives used in ultra-processed foods to improve taste and make the final product more appealing.

Question 4: What is the primary purpose of the industrial processes used to make ultra-processed foods?
Answer A: To make food taste bland
Answer B: To reduce production costs and increase shelf life
Answer C: To increase the nutritional content
Answer D: To make food organic
Correct Answer: B
Correct Answer Text: To reduce production costs and increase shelf life
Correct Answer explanation: The industrial processes used to make ultra-processed foods are designed to create highly profitable, long-lasting products.

Question 5: What is a primary health concern associated with consuming ultra-processed foods?
Answer A: High protein levels
Answer B: Low water content
Answer C: High sugar, unhealthy fats, and salt
Answer D: High fiber content
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: High sugar, unhealthy fats, and salt
Correct Answer explanation: Ultra-processed foods typically contain high levels of sugar, unhealthy fats, and salt, which contribute to various health issues.

Question 6: Which country reportedly has ultra-processed foods contributing to more than half of its total dietary energy?
Answer A: Japan
Answer B: Canada
Answer C: Italy
Answer D: India
Correct Answer: B
Correct Answer Text: Canada
Correct Answer explanation: In high-income countries like Canada, ultra-processed foods make up more than half of the total dietary energy consumed.

Question 7: Which ingredient is not typically associated with ultra-processed foods?
Answer A: Whole fruits
Answer B: Hydrogenated oils
Answer C: Hydrolysed proteins
Answer D: Emulsifiers
Correct Answer: A
Correct Answer Text: Whole fruits
Correct Answer explanation: Whole fruits are not typically found in ultra-processed foods, which are more likely to contain hydrogenated oils, hydrolyzed proteins, and emulsifiers.

Question 8: What is the potential effect of ultra-processed foods on glycaemic response?
Answer A: Lower glycaemic response
Answer B: No effect on glycaemic response
Answer C: Higher glycaemic response
Answer D: Balanced glycaemic response
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: Higher glycaemic response
Correct Answer explanation: Ultra-processed foods can induce higher glycaemic responses, which affects blood sugar levels.

Question 9: What dietary guideline has been issued in some Latin American countries regarding ultra-processed foods?
Answer A: Consume more ultra-processed foods
Answer B: Avoidance of ultra-processed foods
Answer C: Only consume ultra-processed foods occasionally
Answer D: Prefer ultra-processed foods over fresh foods
Correct Answer: B
Correct Answer Text: Avoidance of ultra-processed foods
Correct Answer explanation: Avoidance of ultra-processed foods is the ‘golden rule’ of national dietary guidelines issued in some Latin American countries.

Question 10: Which app can help consumers identify ultra-processed foods by scanning barcodes?
Answer A: MyFitnessPal
Answer B: Open Food Facts
Answer C: Lose It!
Answer D: Fitbit
Correct Answer: B
Correct Answer Text: Open Food Facts
Correct Answer explanation: The Open Food Facts app enables consumers to identify ultra-processed foods by scanning barcodes of packaged products.

Question 11: Which food item is an example of an ultra-processed product?
Answer A: Fresh apples
Answer B: Homemade bread
Answer C: Mass-produced packaged bread
Answer D: Raw almonds
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: Mass-produced packaged bread
Correct Answer explanation: Mass-produced packaged bread is an example of an ultra-processed product, often containing additives and preservatives.

Question 12: What is the practical way to identify if a product is ultra-processed?
Answer A: Check the price
Answer B: Check the brand
Answer C: Check if the list of ingredients contains at least one ultra-processed item
Answer D: Check the nutritional value
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: Check if the list of ingredients contains at least one ultra-processed item
Correct Answer explanation: Checking the list of ingredients for ultra-processed items is a practical way to identify ultra-processed foods.

Question 13: Which health issue is associated with high dietary share of ultra-processed foods according to studies?
Answer A: Improved digestion
Answer B: Increased obesity
Answer C: Decreased cancer risk
Answer D: Lower blood pressure
Correct Answer: B
Correct Answer Text: Increased obesity
Correct Answer explanation: Studies indicate that a high dietary share of ultra-processed foods results in increased obesity and other health issues.

Question 14: Which additive found at the end of lists of ingredients identifies a product as ultra-processed?
Answer A: Lactic acid
Answer B: Garlic powder
Answer C: Artificial colors
Answer D: Wheat flour
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: Artificial colors
Correct Answer explanation: Artificial colors and other cosmetic additives are typically found at the end of ingredient lists for ultra-processed foods.

Question 15: What process is usually not involved in the production of ultra-processed foods?
Answer A: Milling
Answer B: Fractioning
Answer C: Hydrogenation
Answer D: Emulsifying
Correct Answer: A
Correct Answer Text: Milling
Correct Answer explanation: While milling is a common food processing method, it is not typically part of the production processes specific to ultra-processed foods, which involve fractioning, hydrogenation, and emulsifying.

Question 16: According to the commentary, what rule is recently emphasized in dietary guidelines regarding ultra-processed foods?
Answer A: Embrace ultra-processed foods
Answer B: Occasionally consume ultra-processed foods
Answer C: Avoid ultra-processed foods
Answer D: Mix ultra-processed foods with fresh foods
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: Avoid ultra-processed foods
Correct Answer explanation: The recent dietary guidelines emphasize the rule of avoiding ultra-processed foods to maintain better health.

Question 17: Which disease is not typically associated with the consumption of ultra-processed foods?
Answer A: Type 2 diabetes
Answer B: Hypertension
Answer C: Coronary diseases
Answer D: Common cold
Correct Answer: D
Correct Answer Text: Common cold
Correct Answer explanation: The common cold is not typically associated with ultra-processed food consumption, unlike diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and coronary diseases.

Question 18: Which feature is NOT typical of ultra-processed foods?
Answer A: Long shelf-life
Answer B: Low production cost
Answer C: High in dietary fiber
Answer D: Highly profitable
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: High in dietary fiber
Correct Answer explanation: Ultra-processed foods are typically not high in dietary fiber; they are manufactured to be long-lasting, low-cost, and highly profitable.

Question 19: Which of the following factors does not contribute to the high market advantage of ultra-processed foods?
Answer A: Convenience
Answer B: Hyper-palatability
Answer C: Aggressive marketing
Answer D: High nutritional value
Correct Answer: D
Correct Answer Text: High nutritional value
Correct Answer explanation: Ultra-processed foods do not have a high nutritional value; rather, they have a market advantage due to their convenience, hyper-palatability, and aggressive marketing.

Question 20: What is a potential environmental impact of the production of ultra-processed foods?
Answer A: Reduced greenhouse gas emissions
Answer B: Increased waste production
Answer C: Decreased energy consumption
Answer D: Enhanced soil fertility
Correct Answer: B
Correct Answer Text: Increased waste production
Correct Answer explanation: The production of ultra-processed foods has significant environmental impacts, including increased waste production.

Question 21: According to the document, what proportion of the diet in middle-income countries is made up of ultra-processed foods?
Answer A: Less than 5%
Answer B: Between one-fifth and one-third
Answer C: More than half
Answer D: Exactly 60%
Correct Answer: B
Correct Answer Text: Between one-fifth and one-third
Correct Answer explanation: Ultra-processed foods make up between one-fifth and one-third of the total dietary energy consumed in middle-income countries.

Question 22: What ingredient typically indicates a food is minimally processed according to the NOVA classification?
Answer A: Added sugars
Answer B: Emulsifiers
Answer C: Plain steel-cut oats
Answer D: Hydrogenated oils
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: Plain steel-cut oats
Correct Answer explanation: Plain steel-cut oats are considered minimally processed, which is different from foods containing added sugars, emulsifiers, or hydrogenated oils.

Question 23: What is one reason why ultra-processed foods are described as “hyper-palatable”?
Answer A: They have low sugar content
Answer B: They include a variety of fresh vegetables
Answer C: Use of additives such as flavors and sweeteners
Answer D: They are high in protein
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: Use of additives such as flavors and sweeteners
Correct Answer explanation: Ultra-processed foods are hyper-palatable because of the various additives such as flavors and sweeteners used to enhance their taste.

Question 24: Which of the following health outcomes is linked to the consumption of ultra-processed foods according to the commentary?
Answer A: Improved immune system
Answer B: Enhanced energy levels
Answer C: Increased risk of breast cancer
Answer D: Reduced cancer risk
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: Increased risk of breast cancer
Correct Answer explanation: The consumption of ultra-processed foods is linked to an increased risk of breast cancer, among other health issues.

Question 25: In what year was the term “ultra-processed food” first brought to prominence by Brazilian researchers?
Answer A: 1999
Answer B: 2005
Answer C: 2009
Answer D: 2015
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: 2009
Correct Answer explanation: The term “ultra-processed food” was first brought to prominence by Brazilian researchers in 2009 as part of their NOVA classification system.

Question 26: What is not a characteristic feature of ultra-processed foods?
Answer A: Use of numerous additives
Answer B: Extended shelf life
Answer C: High fresh food content
Answer D: Low production costs
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: High fresh food content
Correct Answer explanation: Ultra-processed foods typically have low fresh food content and are characterized by the use of additives, extended shelf life, and low production costs.

Question 27: According to studies, what dietary change has been shown to have beneficial health outcomes?
Answer A: Increase in processed foods
Answer B: Increase in ultra-processed foods
Answer C: Increase in unprocessed or minimally processed foods
Answer D: Mixing processed and ultra-processed foods equally
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: Increase in unprocessed or minimally processed foods
Correct Answer explanation: Studies indicate that an increase in the consumption of unprocessed or minimally processed foods leads to beneficial health outcomes.

Question 28: What process is more specific to ultra-processed foods than minimally processed foods?
Answer A: Pasteurization
Answer B: Fermentation
Answer C: Assembly of modified food substances
Answer D: Drying
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: Assembly of modified food substances
Correct Answer explanation: The assembly of modified food substances is a process more typical of ultra-processed foods than minimally processed foods.

Question 29: Which country’s dietary guideline specifically recommends avoiding ultra-processed foods?
Answer A: USA
Answer B: Brazil
Answer C: Germany
Answer D: Australia
Correct Answer: B
Correct Answer Text: Brazil
Correct Answer explanation: Brazil’s national dietary guidelines specifically recommend avoiding ultra-processed foods.

Question 30: Which class of additives is used in ultra-processed foods to improve sensory properties such as appearance and texture?
Answer A: Preservatives
Answer B: Vitamins
Answer C: Cosmetic additives
Answer D: Spices
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: Cosmetic additives
Correct Answer explanation: Cosmetic additives are used in ultra-processed foods to improve sensory properties like appearance and texture.

Question 31: In which decade did ultra-processed foods become ubiquitous?
Answer A: 1960s
Answer B: 1970s
Answer C: 1980s
Answer D: 1990s
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: 1980s
Correct Answer explanation: Ultra-processed foods first became ubiquitous in the 1980s.

Question 32: Various studies have shown that ultra-processed foods promote which type of gut environment?
Answer A: Benefits probiotic bacteria
Answer B: Selects microbes that promote inflammatory disease
Answer C: Promotes diverse beneficial microbiota
Answer D: Stabilizes glucose levels
Correct Answer: B
Correct Answer Text: Selects microbes that promote inflammatory disease
Correct Answer explanation: Ultra-processed foods induce a gut environment that selects microbes promoting diverse forms of inflammatory disease.

Question 33: According to the NOVA classification, which of the following foods is not considered ultra-processed?
Answer A: Sweetened breakfast cereal
Answer B: Plant oils
Answer C: Carbonated soft drinks
Answer D: Mass-produced packaged buns
Correct Answer: B
Correct Answer Text: Plant oils
Correct Answer explanation: Plant oils are processed culinary ingredients and are not considered ultra-processed according to the NOVA classification.

Question 34: By what percentage do sales of ultra-processed foods grow annually in high-income countries?
Answer A: About 0.5%
Answer B: About 1%
Answer C: About 5%
Answer D: About 10%
Correct Answer: B
Correct Answer Text: About 1%
Correct Answer explanation: The average growth in sales of ultra-processed foods is about 1% per year in high-income countries.

Question 35: Which country’s ultra-processed food consumption patterns were part of the study’s findings?
Answer A: India
Answer B: Russia
Answer C: Italy
Answer D: Chile
Correct Answer: D
Correct Answer Text: Chile
Correct Answer explanation: Along with other countries, Chile’s consumption patterns of ultra-processed foods were part of the study’s findings.

Question 36: What is one of the health outcomes when the dietary share of ultra-processed foods increases?
Answer A: Improved vitamins and minerals intake
Answer B: Increase in dietary fiber
Answer C: Deterioration of the overall diet quality
Answer D: Improvement in satiety potential
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: Deterioration of the overall diet quality
Correct Answer explanation: An increase in the dietary share of ultra-processed foods results in the deterioration of the overall diet quality.

Question 37: What kind of response do ultra-processed foods typically induce?
Answer A: High protein response
Answer B: Low glycaemic response
Answer C: High glycaemic response
Answer D: Balanced insulin response
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: High glycaemic response
Correct Answer explanation: Ultra-processed foods typically induce high glycaemic responses.

Question 38: Which ingredient found in ultra-processed foods is used to enhance texture and consistency?
Answer A: Salt
Answer B: Thickeners
Answer C: Natural fruit extracts
Answer D: Fresh herbs
Correct Answer: B
Correct Answer Text: Thickeners
Correct Answer explanation: Thickeners are used in ultra-processed foods to enhance texture and consistency.

Question 39: What is one marker the food industry has been criticized for not including on ultra-processed food labels?
Answer A: Sugar content
Answer B: List of industrial processes used
Answer C: Protein content
Answer D: Calorie count
Correct Answer: B
Correct Answer Text: List of industrial processes used
Correct Answer explanation: The food industry is not obliged to state the industrial processes used, which can make identifying ultra-processed foods difficult.

Question 40: According to the commentary, what adverse effect do ultra-processed foods have on the nutritional quality of the diet?
Answer A: They are high in dietary fiber
Answer B: They increase vitamin intake
Answer C: They result in a deterioration of nutritional quality
Answer D: They increase the intake of essential fats
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: They result in a deterioration of nutritional quality
Correct Answer explanation: Ultra-processed foods are associated with a deterioration of the nutritional quality of the diet.

Question 41: Which substance in ultra-processed foods is often modified to improve shelf life and texture?
Answer A: Natural sugars
Answer B: Dietary fibers
Answer C: Protein isolates
Answer D: Citric acid
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: Protein isolates
Correct Answer explanation: Protein isolates in ultra-processed foods are often modified to improve shelf life and texture.

Question 42: In terms of food classification, what does the focus shift to in the NOVA classification system?
Answer A: Type of food consumed
Answer B: Extent and purpose of food processing
Answer C: Caloric content of the food
Answer D: Marketing strategies
Correct Answer: B
Correct Answer Text: Extent and purpose of food processing
Correct Answer explanation: The NOVA classification system focuses on the extent and purpose of food processing, not just the type of food consumed.

Question 43: Which health condition did the commentary highlight as being promoted by the microbial environment created by ultra-processed foods?
Answer A: Common cold
Answer B: Inflammatory diseases
Answer C: Enhanced immune response
Answer D: Lower cholesterol levels
Correct Answer: B
Correct Answer Text: Inflammatory diseases
Correct Answer explanation: The gut environment created by ultra-processed foods selects microbes that promote various forms of inflammatory disease.

Question 44: What is an example of a minimally processed food?
Answer A: Carbonated soft drinks
Answer B: Plain corn flakes
Answer C: Packaged snack cakes
Answer D: Sweetened yogurt
Correct Answer: B
Correct Answer Text: Plain corn flakes
Correct Answer explanation: Plain corn flakes are an example of a minimally processed food, unlike carbonated soft drinks or packaged snack cakes.

Question 45: Which additives are commonly used to prolong the duration and protect properties of processed and ultra-processed foods?
Answer A: Fruit extracts
Answer B: Emulsifiers and preservatives
Answer C: Herbal spices
Answer D: Natural oils
Correct Answer: B
Correct Answer Text: Emulsifiers and preservatives
Correct Answer explanation: Emulsifiers and preservatives are additives commonly used to prolong duration and protect the properties of processed and ultra-processed foods.

Question 46: Which process is NOT typically involved in making ultra-processed foods?
Answer A: High-pressure cooking
Answer B: Extrusion
Answer C: Pre-frying
Answer D: Moulding
Correct Answer: A
Correct Answer Text: High-pressure cooking
Correct Answer explanation: While extrusion, pre-frying, and moulding are common processes, high-pressure cooking is not typically involved in the making of ultra-processed foods.

Question 47: What is a key risk factor added to the diet by ultra-processed foods?
Answer A: High levels of antioxidants
Answer B: Low levels of sugar
Answer C: High levels of sodium and unhealthy fats
Answer D: High levels of protein
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: High levels of sodium and unhealthy fats
Correct Answer explanation: Ultra-processed foods often contain high levels of sodium and unhealthy fats, which are key risk factors for various health problems.

Question 48: Which sector has seen an average growth in sales of ultra-processed foods of up to 10% per year?
Answer A: Low-income countries
Answer B: Middle-income countries
Answer C: High-income countries
Answer D: Emerging markets
Correct Answer: B
Correct Answer Text: Middle-income countries
Correct Answer explanation: The average growth in sales of ultra-processed foods amounts to up to 10% per year in middle-income countries.

Question 49: Which health outcome is often promoted by the additives in ultra-processed foods?
Answer A: Increased satiety
Answer B: Low glycaemic index
Answer C: High energy density
Answer D: Enhanced fiber content
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: High energy density
Correct Answer explanation: The additives and processing techniques used in ultra-processed foods often result in products with high energy density, making them calorie-dense but nutrient-poor.

Question 50: Why do ultra-processed foods displace other NOVA food groups in the diet?
Answer A: They are cheaper
Answer B: They are high in fiber
Answer C: They are time-consuming to prepare
Answer D: They spoil quickly
Correct Answer: A
Correct Answer Text: They are cheaper
Correct Answer explanation: Ultra-processed foods are often cheaper due to the use of low-cost ingredients, and their convenience and shelf-stability make them more appealing to consumers, displacing healthier food options.

Question 51: According to the commentary, which environmental impact results from the production of ultra-processed foods?
Answer A: Decreased greenhouse gas emissions
Answer B: Reduced energy consumption
Answer C: Higher waste production
Answer D: Enhanced soil fertility
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: Higher waste production
Correct Answer explanation: The extensive processing and packaging involved in the production of ultra-processed foods result in higher waste production compared to minimally processed foods.

Question 52: What term is used to describe the physical changes that occur during the processing of ultra-processed foods?
Answer A: Culinary alterations
Answer B: Structural modifications
Answer C: Nutritional enhancements
Answer D: Flavoring additions
Correct Answer: B
Correct Answer Text: Structural modifications
Correct Answer explanation: Structural modifications refer to the physical changes that occur during the processing of ultra-processed foods, altering their texture and nutrient composition.

Question 53: What is the primary driving force behind the large market share of ultra-processed foods?
Answer A: Nutritional benefits
Answer B: Cost-effectiveness and branding
Answer C: High protein content
Answer D: Freshness
Correct Answer: B
Correct Answer Text: Cost-effectiveness and branding
Correct Answer explanation: The large market share of ultra-processed foods is primarily driven by their cost-effectiveness and strong branding strategies that make them appealing to consumers.

Question 54: In which classification group do non-alcoholic fermented foods fall according to NOVA?
Answer A: Group 1
Answer B: Group 2
Answer C: Group 3
Answer D: Group 4
Correct Answer: A
Correct Answer Text: Group 1
Correct Answer explanation: Non-alcoholic fermented foods fall within Group 1 of the NOVA classification, which includes unprocessed or minimally processed foods.

Question 55: What does the presence of additives like flavor enhancers and emulsifiers indicate about a food product?
Answer A: It is minimally processed
Answer B: It is highly nutritious
Answer C: It is ultra-processed
Answer D: It contains no added sugars
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: It is ultra-processed
Correct Answer explanation: Additives like flavor enhancers and emulsifiers are indicative of ultra-processed foods, as they are used to improve taste and texture.

Question 56: What kind of packaging is typical for ultra-processed foods?
Answer A: Simple paper packaging
Answer B: Recyclable glass jars
Answer C: Sophisticated synthetic packaging
Answer D: Biodegradable pouches
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: Sophisticated synthetic packaging
Correct Answer explanation: Ultra-processed foods often come in sophisticated synthetic packaging designed to extend shelf life and attract consumers.

Question 57: Which demographic is often targeted by marketing strategies of ultra-processed food companies?
Answer A: Older adults
Answer B: Teenagers and young adults
Answer C: Rural communities
Answer D: Farming households
Correct Answer: B
Correct Answer Text: Teenagers and young adults
Correct Answer explanation: Marketing strategies for ultra-processed foods often target teenagers and young adults, who are more influenced by advertisements and branding.

Question 58: What is a commonly cited health benefit of avoiding ultra-processed foods?
Answer A: Improved cognitive function
Answer B: Faster recovery from illness
Answer C: Reduced risk of chronic diseases
Answer D: Enhanced palate sophistication
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: Reduced risk of chronic diseases
Correct Answer explanation: Avoiding ultra-processed foods can reduce the risk of chronic diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.

Question 59: What is one of the factors driving the widespread availability of ultra-processed foods globally?
Answer A: Local ingredient sourcing
Answer B: Traditional recipes
Answer C: Global production networks
Answer D: Home-cooked meal replacement
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: Global production networks
Correct Answer explanation: Global production networks established by large food corporations help ensure the widespread availability of ultra-processed foods.

Question 60: According to Monteiro’s commentary, what is a practical method for consumers to avoid ultra-processed foods?
Answer A: Buy groceries only from small local stores
Answer B: Prepare all meals from scratch at home
Answer C: Check ingredient labels for additives and unfamiliar substances
Answer D: Only purchase organic products
Correct Answer: C
Correct Answer Text: Check ingredient labels for additives and unfamiliar substances
Correct Answer explanation: A practical method for consumers to avoid ultra-processed foods is by checking ingredient labels for additives and substances that are not commonly used in home kitchens.

Disclaimer: Please consult a physician before making any changes to your health regimen.

Sources:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10260459/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultra-processed_food

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7399967/

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