Viola Trivia Questions and Answers

purple and white flowers in tilt shift lens

1: Which genus of flowering plants is the largest in the violet family with over 680 species?
A: Viola
B: Rosa
C: Daffodil
D: Tulipa
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Viola is the largest genus in the violet family Violaceae, containing over 680 species.

2: Which of the following areas is NOT a typical habitat for Viola species?
A: Temperate Northern Hemisphere
B: Hawaii
C: Sahara Desert
D: The Andes
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Most Viola species are found in the temperate Northern Hemisphere, Hawaii, Australasia, and the Andes, but not in the Sahara Desert.

3: What is the common name used in horticulture for large-flowered Viola cultivars that are grown annually or biennially?
A: Violets
B: Pansies
C: Sunflowers
D: Orchids
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: In horticulture, “pansy” refers to large-flowered Viola cultivars grown annually or biennially.

4: What shape are the leaves typically found on Viola plants?
A: Heart-shaped
B: Star-shaped
C: Linear
D: Palmate
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Viola typically have heart-shaped or reniform (kidney-shaped) leaves.

5: What is the main characteristic of Viola flowers that makes them easily recognizable?
A: Bilateral symmetry
B: Radial symmetry
C: Tripartite petals
D: An absence of petals
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: The flowers of Viola species are strongly zygomorphic with bilateral symmetry.

6: What is the main function of the ‘spur’ found on some Viola petals?
A: It produces nectar
B: It releases seeds
C: It traps insects
D: It absorbs sunlight
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: The spur on some Viola petals contains nectary spurs for producing nectar.

7: Which part of the Viola flower persists and sometimes enlarges after blooming?
A: Sepals
B: Petals
C: Stamens
D: Style
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: In many Viola species, the sepals persist and may enlarge after blooming.

8: What is the range of colors that Viola flowers can have?
A: Green to brown
B: White to yellow, orange, blue, violet, or multicolored
C: Red to black
D: Grey to teal
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Viola flowers range from white to yellow, orange, blue, violet, or multicolored.

9: What role does ionone play in Viola flowers?
A: Acts as a pigment
B: Temporarily desensitizes nasal receptors detecting the flower’s scent
C: Helps in seed dispersion
D: Strengthens stems
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Ionone temporarily desensitizes the receptors of the nose, preventing further scent detection from the flower until the nerves recover.

10: Who first formally described the Viola genus in 1753?
A: Charles Darwin
B: Carolus Linnaeus
C: Gregor Mendel
D: Robert Hooke
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Carolus Linnaeus first formally described the Viola genus in 1753.

11: In phylogeny, which subfamilies and tribes does the genus Viola belong to?
A: Rubaceae
B: Violoideae, Violeae
C: Asteraceae
D: Orchidaceae
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Viola belongs to the subfamily Violoideae, tribe Violeae.

12: What are the extant structures that the species within genus Viola use for seed ejection?
A: Tubes
B: Valves
C: Pockets
D: Spaces
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: After flowering, Viola species produce fruit capsules that split open by way of three valves.

13: What allows Viola flowers to eject their seeds with considerable force?
A: Wind
B: Drying capsules
C: Insect activity
D: Animal attachment
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: On drying, Viola capsules may eject seeds with considerable force to distances of several meters.

14: What type of leaves do violets always possess?
A: Without stipules
B: Needle-like
C: Heart-shaped
D: Leaves with stipules
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: Violets always have leaves with stipules that are often leaf-like.

15: Which characteristic of Viola pubescens allows it to maintain genetic diversity despite habitat fragmentation?
A: High mutation rate
B: Tolerance to heavy metals
C: Outcrossing
D: Ability to clone
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Despite habitat fragmentation, Viola pubescens shows high genetic diversity due to outcrossing.

16: What method do many violet seeds use to germinate and establish in a stable environment, thanks to ants?
A: Myrmecochory
B: Hydrochory
C: Anemochory
D: Zoochory
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Many violet seeds are dispersed by ants through a process called myrmecochory.

17: In what type of soil are the zinc violets capable of living?
A: Sandy soils
B: Loamy soils
C: Heavy metal-contaminated soils
D: Clay soils
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Zinc violets (e.g., V. calaminaria) can live in soils severely contaminated with heavy metals.

18: What is the typical mode of pollination for violets?
A: Wind
B: Water
C: Insects
D: Self-pollination exclusively
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Viola species are mainly pollinated by members of the Diptera and Hymenoptera orders.

19: Which of the following butterflies commonly uses Viola as a host plant?
A: Monarch
B: Giant leopard moth
C: Painted lady
D: Cabbage white
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The larvae of the giant leopard moth use Viola species as a food plant.

20: What type of flowers do violas produce in early spring?
A: Clonal cleistogamous flowers
B: Chasmogamous flowers
C: Parasitic flowers
D: Tubular flowers
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Violas produce chasmogamous flowers, which have well-developed petals, in early spring.

21: What is the common name for crystallized Viola flowers in France?
A: Violet essence
B: Violet candies
C: Violettes de Toulouse
D: Sugar violets
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Crystallized violets in France are known as violettes de Toulouse.

22: Which pigment class found in some Viola species provides antioxidant activity?
A: Anthocyanins
B: Flavonoids
C: Chlorophyll
D: Carotenoids
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Anthocyanins, found in some Viola species, are known for their antioxidant activity.

23: What is a noted feature of Viola odorata in the perfume industry?
A: A constant scent
B: A ‘flirty’ scent that comes and goes
C: Its resistance to degradation
D: High concentration of essential oils
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Viola odorata is known for its ‘flirty’ scent, which comes and goes due to the presence of ionone.

24: What is the traditional birth flower for February in English tradition?
A: Rose
B: Violet
C: Daisy
D: Lily
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The violet is the traditional birth flower for February in English tradition.

25: Which U.S. state does NOT have the common blue violet as their state flower?
A: Illinois
B: New Jersey
C: Wisconsin
D: Texas
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: Texas does not have the common blue violet as its state flower, while Illinois, New Jersey, and Wisconsin do.

26: What flower became symbolically associated with romantic love between women and was referenced in Sappho’s poetry?
A: Roses
B: Tulips
C: Violets
D: Daisies
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Violets became symbolically associated with romantic love between women, as referenced in Sappho’s poetry.

27: In which play involving a lesbian relationship was a bouquet of violets used to signify lesbian love?
A: A Streetcar Named Desire
B: La Cage aux Folles
C: La Prisonnière
D: The Children’s Hour
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: In the play La Prisonnière by Édouard Bourdet, a bouquet of violets was used to signify lesbian love.

28: What is a common genetic trait observed in many violet species concerning pollination?
A: High rates of self-pollination only
B: High rates of outcrossing
C: Exclusively wind pollinated
D: No competition for pollinators
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Many violet species exhibit high rates of outcrossing, which contributes to their genetic diversity.

29: What type of specialized structures on Viola seeds aids in their dispersal by ants?
A: Elaiosomes
B: Cysts
C: Tubers
D: Spikes
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Viola seeds have specialized structures called elaiosomes that aid in their dispersal by ants.

30: What horticultural division is applicable for stoloniferous perennials with small, highly fragrant, self-colored flowers?
A: Pansy
B: Violet
C: Orchid
D: Daffodil
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: In horticulture, violets (Vt) are stoloniferous perennials with small, highly fragrant, self-colored flowers.

31: When did Pansy become one of the top three bedding plant crops in the United States?
A: 1995
B: 2005
C: 2015
D: 2020
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: In 2005, Viola cultivars, including pansies, were one of the top three bedding plant crops in the United States.

32: What is the botanical term used to describe the type of flowers that self-pollinate and do not open?
A: Chasmogamous
B: Cleistogamous
C: Protogynous
D: Dichogamous
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Cleistogamous flowers self-pollinate and do not open.

33: Which cultivar of Viola has a distinct vanilla flavor with hints of wintergreen?
A: V. tricolor
B: V. cornuta
C: ‘Rebecca’
D: ‘Molly Sanderson’
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: The cultivar ‘Rebecca’ has a distinct vanilla flavor with hints of wintergreen.

34: What effect do cyclotides from Viola species have?
A: Antioxidant
B: Antimicrobial
C: Nutritive
D: Pollination aid
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Cyclotides from Viola species have a range of biological activities, including antimicrobial effects.

35: What syrup made from an extract of violets is used in French culinary practices?
A: Chamomile syrup
B: Violet syrup
C: Rose syrup
D: Lavender syrup
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: French violet syrup is made from an extract of violets and is used in culinary practices.

36: Where did the genus Viola likely originate according to fossil seed evidence?
A: Europe
B: Asia
C: South America
D: North America
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Fossil seed evidence suggests that the genus Viola likely originated in South America, most likely the Andes.

37: How do Violet flowers contribute to medicinal uses?
A: By providing vitamins
B: By exhibiting antioxidant activities
C: By enhancing muscle strength
D: By improving eyesight
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Viola flowers contain antioxidants which show strong antioxidant activities.

38: Which Australian Viola species was first collected by Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander?
A: V. hederacea
B: V. odorata
C: V. x wittrockiana
D: V. tricolor
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Viola hederacea was one of the species first collected by Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander in Australia.

39: How much worth of Viola bedding plants were produced in the U.S. in 2005?
A: 50 million dollars
B: 75 million dollars
C: 100 million dollars
D: 111 million dollars
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: In 2005, 111 million dollars worth of flats of Viola were produced for the bedding flower market in the U.S.

40: Which section does NOT correctly belong to the traditional Viola sections placed by Gingins?
A: Nomimium
B: Dischidium
C: Rosaceae
D: Melanium
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Rosaceae is a plant family, not a traditional section of Viola placed by Gingins.

41: Which species of Viola is the type species for the genus?
A: Viola sororia
B: Viola odorata
C: Viola tricolor
D: Viola pubescens
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Viola odorata is the type species for the genus Viola.

42: Which major component of the scent of some Viola flowers causes its ‘flirty’ scent?
A: Limonene
B: Ionone
C: Lavender
D: Cinnamate
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Ionone is a major component of the scent of some Viola flowers, causing its ‘flirty’ nature.

43: What classification clade does Viola belong to?
A: Bryophytes
B: Angiosperms
C: Gymnosperms
D: Pteridophytes
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Viola belongs to the clade Angiosperms.

44: What is the special method violets use to produce offspring through unopen flowers?
A: Chasmogamy
B: Myrmecochory
C: Cleistogamy
D: Xenogamy
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Cleistogamy is the process where unopen flowers self-pollinate to produce offspring.

45: In which country is the Viola cucullata the provincial flower?
A: United States
B: Canada
C: Australia
D: France
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: In Canada, Viola cucullata is the provincial flower of New Brunswick.

46: What is the role of the American Violet Society in horticulture?
A: Register new Viola cultivars
B: Harvest violets
C: Conduct violet research exclusively
D: Fund botanical gardens
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: The American Violet Society registers new Viola cultivars.

47: Which compound in Viola flowers prevents further scent detection temporarily?
A: Ionone
B: Limonene
C: Myricetin
D: Coumarin
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Ionone in Viola flowers desensitizes nasal receptors, preventing further scent detection temporarily.

48: Which poet referenced violets as a symbol of romantic love?
A: Shakespeare
B: Poe
C: Frost
D: Sappho
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: The poet Sappho referenced violets as a symbol of romantic love between women.

49: In which habitat can Viola lanceolata typically be found?
A: Deserts
B: Bogs
C: Mountain tops
D: Urban areas
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: Viola lanceolata typically inhabits bogs.

50: Which classification term is often used for the small-flowered annuals or perennials, including wild Viola species?
A: Pansy
B: Violas or violets
C: Orchids
D: Lilies
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The terms viola and violet are normally reserved for small-flowered annuals or perennials, including the wild species.

51: Which group of butterflies often uses violets as a host plant for their larvae?
A: Monarchs
B: Fritillary butterflies
C: Swallowtails
D: Sulphurs
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: The larvae of many fritillary butterfly species use violets as an obligate host plant.

52: Which species of Viola is known for producing infertile chasmogamous flowers?
A: V. sororia
B: V. odorata
C: V. tricolor
D: V. pubescens
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Viola sororia is known for producing infertile chasmogamous flowers.

53: Which U.S. state adopted the common blue violet as its state flower in 1936?
A: Rhode Island
B: Illinois
C: New York
D: Wisconsin
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: In 1936, Rhode Island adopted the common blue violet as its state flower.

54: What culinary product is made using violet essence, typically in France?
A: Violet candies
B: Lavender tea
C: Chamomile honey
D: Thyme syrup
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Violet essence is used in French confectionery, such as candies.

55: What highest species concentration location is mentioned for Viola in the former USSR?
A: Siberia
B: Eastern Europe
C: Central America
D: Pacific Islands
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: One of the highest concentrations of Viola species is in the mountainous regions of Eastern Europe in the former USSR.

56: Which flower is used to signify the traditional English birth flower for February?
A: Tulip
B: Violet
C: Rose
D: Daisy
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: In English tradition, the violet is the birth flower for February.

57: What type of environment do Ants create that benefits the germination of violet seeds?
A: Cold environments
B: Polluted environments
C: Warm and protected environments
D: Rocky environments
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Ants disperse violet seeds to create warm and protected environments for germination.

58: Which component in Viola flowers is responsible for its fragrance in the perfume industry?
A: Ionone
B: Chlorophyll
C: Phosphorane
D: Myricetin
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Ionone in Viola flowers is responsible for its fragrance used in the perfume industry.

59: Which famous botanists first collected Viola species in Australia?
A: Graduates of the Harvard Herbarium
B: Researchers from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
C: Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander
D: Carl Linnaeus and Charles Darwin
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander first collected many Viola species in Australia.

60: What is the typical visual feature that distinguishes violas from violettas in horticulture?
A: Lack of ray markings on petals
B: Presence of thorns
C: Height of plants
D: Color of leaves
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Violettas can be distinguished from violas by the lack of ray markings on their petals.

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